Stulz, Eugen, Bürgi, Hans-Beat and Leumann, Christian
ZrIV-tetraphenylporphyrinates as nuclease mimics: Structural, kinetic and mechanistic studies on phosphate diester transesterification
Chemistry - A European Journal, 6, (3), . (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-3765(20000204)6:3<523::AID-CHEM523>3.0.CO;2-1). (PMID:10747420).
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The Zr-IV-tetraphenylporphyrinates Zr(TPP)(X,X'), (X,X' = -OAc, -OMe, Cl-) 4-6, 8 were prepared and their complexing properties as well as catalytic properties towards solvolysis of the phosphate diesters hpp (2), dmp (3) and pmp (16) characterised. The diesters 2 and 16, representing model phosphates for RNA and DNA, were substrates for the catalyst Zr(TPP)CI, (4), and rate accelerations over background by 6-9 orders of magnitude were measured. These accelerations are comparable to those of dinuclear transition metal catalysts and lanthanide ions. Catalytic turnover was observed. Kinetic studies revealed that the catalytically active species of 4 in the solvolysis of 2 and 16 in methanol-containing solvents are dinuclear complexes containing either one or two phosphate esters depending upon the phosphate concentration. Besides the usual solvolysis pathway of the RNA model hpp (2), which proceeds via the cyclophosphate 20, a second, unusual pathway via direct substitution of the hydroxypropyl substituent was found. X-ray analysis of the Zr(TPP)(dmp) complex 19 revealed a dinuclear structure with two bridging dmp ligands and one monomethyl phosphate unit. In 19 one of the two dmp residues occurs in a very unusual high energy ac,ap conformation. Based on this structure and on the kinetic data, mechanistic models for the two solvolysis reaction pathways were developed. From an extensive CSD search on phosphodiester structures no correlation between P-O ester bond lengths and diester conformations could be found. However, P-O ester bonds decrease in length with increasing formal charge of the complexing metal ions. This underlines the higher importance of electrostatic activation relative to stereoelectronic effects in phosphodiester hydrolysis.
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