Pelosi, Emanuela, Lambden, Paul R., Caul, E. Owen, Liu, Binlei, Dingle, Kate, Deng, Yu and Clarke, Ian N.
The seroepidemiology of genogroup 1 and genogroup 2 Norwalk-like viruses in Italy
Journal of Medical Virology, 58, (1), . (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9071(199905)58:1<93::AID-JMV15>3.0.CO;2-P). (PMID:10223553).
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Southampton virus (SV) and Lordsdale viruses (LV) are small round structured viruses characterised recently and belong to two separate genogroups. The capsid genes of these viruses were expressed in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses. Both SV (genogroup 1) and LV (genogroup 2) capsid proteins self-assembled to form virus-like particles (VLPs). The VLPs were used in a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to screen for antibodies to SV and LV in 1,729 age-stratified human sera collected in Verona, Italy between January and November 1996. SV VLPs were labile compared with LV VLPs. There was a large difference in the prevalence of SV (28.7%) compared with LV (91.2%). However, presentation of SV VLPs using chicken egg yolk antibody-coated wells (IgY capture ELISA) with a subset of serum samples from patients (0-19 years) increased the number of positive sera significantly (50.5%), indicating that SV antigen integrity is an important factor in the assay. Recent reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) studies have shown that LV is circulating currently and analysis of IgY capture ELISA data showed greater reactivity for LV than SV, reflecting a genuinely lower rate of recent infection by this genogroup 1 virus.
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