Toal, David J.J. and Keane, Andy J.
Efficient multipoint aerodynamic design optimization via cokriging
Journal of Aircraft, 48, (5), . (doi:10.2514/1.C031342).
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Multipoint objective functions are often employed within aerodynamic optimizations to prevent a reduction in offdesign performance. However, this typically results in the need for a significant number of simulations at a variety of design conditions to calculate the objective function. The following paper attempts to address this problem through the application of a multilevel cokriging model within the optimization process. A large number of single-point design simulations are augmented by a smaller number of multipoint simulations. The technique is shown to result in surrogate models as effective as those produced using a traditional multipoint process when optimizing a transonic airfoil but with a reduction in the total number of simulations
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