Miles, E.A., Noakes, P.S., Kremmyda, L.S., Vlachava, M., Diaper, N.D., Rosenlund, G., Urwin, H., Yaqoob, P., Rossary, A., Farges, M.C., Vasson, M.P., Liaset, B., Froyland, L., Helmersson, J., Basu, S., Garcia, E., Olza, J., Mesa, M.D., Aguilera, C.M., Gil, A., Robinson, S.M., Inskip, H.M., Godfrey, K.M. and Calder, P.C.
The salmon in pregnancy study: study design, subject characteristics, maternal fish and marine n-3 fatty acid intake, and marine n-3 fatty acid status in maternal and umbilical cord blood
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 94, supplement 6, . (doi:10.3945/?ajcn.110.001636). (PMID:21849598).
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Background: Oily fish provides marine n?3 (omega-3) fatty acids that are considered to be important in the growth, development, and health of the fetus and newborn infant.
Objectives: The objectives were to increase salmon consumption among pregnant women and to determine the effect on maternal and umbilical cord plasma marine n?3 fatty acid content.
Design: Women (n = 123) with low habitual consumption of oily fish were randomly assigned to continue their habitual diet or were provided with 2 portions of farmed salmon/wk to include in their diet from week 20 of pregnancy until delivery.
Results: Median weekly consumption frequency of study salmon in the salmon group was 1.94 portions, and total fish consumption frequency was 2.11 portions/wk in the salmon group and 0.47 portions/wk in the control group (P < 0.001). Intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from the diet, from seafood, and from oily fish were higher in the salmon group (all P < 0.001). Percentages of EPA and DHA in plasma phosphatidylcholine decreased during pregnancy in the control group (P for trend = 0.029 and 0.008, respectively), whereas they increased in the salmon group (P for trend for both < 0.001). EPA and DHA percentages were higher in maternal plasma phosphatidylcholine at weeks 34 and 38 of pregnancy and in umbilical cord plasma phosphatidylcholine in the salmon group (P < 0.001 for all).
Conclusion: If pregnant women, who do not regularly eat oily fish, eat 2 portions of salmon/wk, they will increase their intake of EPA and DHA, achieving the recommended minimum intake; and they will increase their and their fetus’ status of EPA and DHA.
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