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Fabrication and structural characterization of self-supporting electrolyte membranes for a micro solid-oxide fuel cell

Fabrication and structural characterization of self-supporting electrolyte membranes for a micro solid-oxide fuel cell
Fabrication and structural characterization of self-supporting electrolyte membranes for a micro solid-oxide fuel cell
Micromachined fuel cells are among a class of microscale devices being explored for portable power generation. In this paper, we report processing and geometric design criteria for the fabrication of free-standing electrolyte membranes for microscale solid-oxide fuel cells. Submicron, dense, nanocrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) films were deposited onto silicon nitride membranes using electron-beam evaporation and sputter deposition. Selective silicon nitride removal leads to free-standing, square, electrolyte membranes with side dimensions as large as 1025 µm for YSZ and 525 µm for GDC, with high processing yields for YSZ. Residual stresses are tensile (+85 to +235 MPa) and compressive (–865 to -155 MPa) in as-deposited evaporated and sputtered films, respectively. Tensile evaporated films fail via brittle fracture during annealing at temperatures below 773 K; thermal limitations are dependent on the film thickness to membrane size aspect ratio. Sputtered films with compressive residual stresses show superior mechanical and thermal stability than evaporated films. Sputtered 1025-µm membranes survive annealing at 773 K, which leads to the generation of tensile stresses and brittle fracture at elevated temperatures (923 K).
2604-2615
Baertsch, Chelsey D.
1ff5ae1f-08e5-4187-859a-857453fc17d1
Jensen, Klavs F.
4611cc2d-12b9-4b4c-bd15-a24fd7e3c0f8
Hertz, Joshua L.
de13ae91-55f4-4e9e-b35e-2742fcdc144b
Tuller, Harry L.
77e61185-502b-466d-9626-a8d20d6c969c
Srikar T., Vengallatore
3cb722f0-278c-4a5b-b81e-3c62acc5a641
Spearing, S. Mark
9e56a7b3-e0e8-47b1-a6b4-db676ed3c17a
Schmidt, Martin A.
994a58dc-71f0-45d9-96d1-f0d9cd421c56
Baertsch, Chelsey D.
1ff5ae1f-08e5-4187-859a-857453fc17d1
Jensen, Klavs F.
4611cc2d-12b9-4b4c-bd15-a24fd7e3c0f8
Hertz, Joshua L.
de13ae91-55f4-4e9e-b35e-2742fcdc144b
Tuller, Harry L.
77e61185-502b-466d-9626-a8d20d6c969c
Srikar T., Vengallatore
3cb722f0-278c-4a5b-b81e-3c62acc5a641
Spearing, S. Mark
9e56a7b3-e0e8-47b1-a6b4-db676ed3c17a
Schmidt, Martin A.
994a58dc-71f0-45d9-96d1-f0d9cd421c56

Baertsch, Chelsey D., Jensen, Klavs F., Hertz, Joshua L., Tuller, Harry L., Srikar T., Vengallatore, Spearing, S. Mark and Schmidt, Martin A. (2004) Fabrication and structural characterization of self-supporting electrolyte membranes for a micro solid-oxide fuel cell. Journal of Materials Research, 19 (9), 2604-2615. (doi:10.1557/JMR.2004.0350).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Micromachined fuel cells are among a class of microscale devices being explored for portable power generation. In this paper, we report processing and geometric design criteria for the fabrication of free-standing electrolyte membranes for microscale solid-oxide fuel cells. Submicron, dense, nanocrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) films were deposited onto silicon nitride membranes using electron-beam evaporation and sputter deposition. Selective silicon nitride removal leads to free-standing, square, electrolyte membranes with side dimensions as large as 1025 µm for YSZ and 525 µm for GDC, with high processing yields for YSZ. Residual stresses are tensile (+85 to +235 MPa) and compressive (–865 to -155 MPa) in as-deposited evaporated and sputtered films, respectively. Tensile evaporated films fail via brittle fracture during annealing at temperatures below 773 K; thermal limitations are dependent on the film thickness to membrane size aspect ratio. Sputtered films with compressive residual stresses show superior mechanical and thermal stability than evaporated films. Sputtered 1025-µm membranes survive annealing at 773 K, which leads to the generation of tensile stresses and brittle fracture at elevated temperatures (923 K).

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Published date: 2004

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 23001
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/23001
PURE UUID: 529e2d81-9b37-4f39-831e-915dd66c6a99
ORCID for S. Mark Spearing: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-3059-2014

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Date deposited: 13 Mar 2006
Last modified: 31 Jul 2019 00:43

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Contributors

Author: Chelsey D. Baertsch
Author: Klavs F. Jensen
Author: Joshua L. Hertz
Author: Harry L. Tuller
Author: Vengallatore Srikar T.
Author: Martin A. Schmidt

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