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Association between dementia and infectious disease: evidence from a case-control study

Association between dementia and infectious disease: evidence from a case-control study
Association between dementia and infectious disease: evidence from a case-control study
Inflammation plays a part in the etiology of dementia. Whether this is the primary pathogenesis, or a secondary reaction is unclear. We postulate that since systemic infection can provoke the enhanced synthesis of inflammatory mediators in the brain, such diseases may promote the onset of dementia.
We carried out a nested case-control study using the General Practice Research Database. Cases were patients with incident dementia, and controls without such a diagnosis. Infectious episodes in the four years preceding diagnosis were counted using diagnostic codes, or prescription codes for anti-infective drugs. We considered age, sex, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and frequency of consultation as potential confounders.
There were 9954 valid cases, and 9374 valid controls. Cases were on average older, more likely to be female, to smoke and to have diabetes, than the controls. There was an increased risk of diagnosis of dementia in those patients older than 84 with infections (OR for 2 or more infections compared with 0 or 1 = 1.4, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.7). Smoking and diabetes mellitus were also shown to markedly increase the risk of diagnosis of dementia.
We have shown a positive association between episodes of infection and increased likelihood of diagnosis of dementia in the very elderly. Smoking and diabetes mellitus are associated with onset of dementia in the elderly. The evidence from this study may represent cause and effect, since there is a credible biologic explanation.
0893-0341
91-94
Dunn, Nicholas
d91a237d-a036-49fa-b48b-641cb327f22c
Mullee, Mark
fd3f91c3-5e95-4f56-8d73-260824eeb362
Perry, V. Hugh
8f29d36a-8e1f-4082-8700-09483bbaeae4
Holmes, Clive
ada5abf3-8459-4cf7-be40-3f4e9391cc96
Dunn, Nicholas
d91a237d-a036-49fa-b48b-641cb327f22c
Mullee, Mark
fd3f91c3-5e95-4f56-8d73-260824eeb362
Perry, V. Hugh
8f29d36a-8e1f-4082-8700-09483bbaeae4
Holmes, Clive
ada5abf3-8459-4cf7-be40-3f4e9391cc96

Dunn, Nicholas, Mullee, Mark, Perry, V. Hugh and Holmes, Clive (2005) Association between dementia and infectious disease: evidence from a case-control study. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 19 (2), 91-94.

Record type: Article

Abstract

Inflammation plays a part in the etiology of dementia. Whether this is the primary pathogenesis, or a secondary reaction is unclear. We postulate that since systemic infection can provoke the enhanced synthesis of inflammatory mediators in the brain, such diseases may promote the onset of dementia.
We carried out a nested case-control study using the General Practice Research Database. Cases were patients with incident dementia, and controls without such a diagnosis. Infectious episodes in the four years preceding diagnosis were counted using diagnostic codes, or prescription codes for anti-infective drugs. We considered age, sex, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and frequency of consultation as potential confounders.
There were 9954 valid cases, and 9374 valid controls. Cases were on average older, more likely to be female, to smoke and to have diabetes, than the controls. There was an increased risk of diagnosis of dementia in those patients older than 84 with infections (OR for 2 or more infections compared with 0 or 1 = 1.4, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.7). Smoking and diabetes mellitus were also shown to markedly increase the risk of diagnosis of dementia.
We have shown a positive association between episodes of infection and increased likelihood of diagnosis of dementia in the very elderly. Smoking and diabetes mellitus are associated with onset of dementia in the elderly. The evidence from this study may represent cause and effect, since there is a credible biologic explanation.

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More information

Published date: 2005

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 24327
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/24327
ISSN: 0893-0341
PURE UUID: 6236c691-17a1-42d8-b733-ccf5fed926ea
ORCID for Clive Holmes: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-1999-6912

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 30 Mar 2006
Last modified: 09 Jan 2022 03:00

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Contributors

Author: Nicholas Dunn
Author: Mark Mullee
Author: V. Hugh Perry
Author: Clive Holmes ORCID iD

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