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Markers to measure immunomodulation in human nutrition intervention studies

Markers to measure immunomodulation in human nutrition intervention studies
Markers to measure immunomodulation in human nutrition intervention studies
Normal functioning of the immune system is crucial to the health of man, and diet is one of the major exogenous factors modulating individual immunocompetence. Recently, nutrition research has focused on the role of foods or specific food components in enhancing immune system responsiveness to challenges and thereby improving health and reducing disease risks. Assessing diet-induced changes of immune function, however, requires a thorough methodological approach targeting a large spectrum of immune system parameters. Currently, no single marker is available to predict the outcome of a dietary intervention on the resistance to infection or to other immune system-related diseases. The present review summarises the immune function assays commonly used as markers in human intervention studies and evaluates their biological relevance (e.g. known correlation with clinically relevant endpoints), sensitivity (e.g. within- and between-subject variation), and practical feasibility. Based on these criteria markers were classified into three categories with high, medium or low suitability. Vaccine-specific serum antibody production, delayed-type hypersensitivity response, vaccine-specific or total secretory IgA in saliva and the response to attenuated pathogens, were classified as markers with high suitability. Markers with medium suitability include natural killer cell cytotoxicity, oxidative burst of phagocytes, lymphocyte proliferation and the cytokine pattern produced by activated immune cells. Since no single marker allows conclusions to be drawn about the modulation of the whole immune system, except for the clinical outcome of infection itself, combining markers with high and medium suitability is currently the best approach to measure immunomodulation in human nutrition intervention studies. It would be valuable to include several immune markers in addition to clinical outcome in future clinical trials in this area, as there is too little evidence that correlates markers with global health improvement.
Immune function, marker, diet, human studies, infections
0007-1145
452-481
Albers, R.
63eb3d3b-2052-4ad1-a7aa-888a6781c5e0
Antoine, J.M.
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Bourdet-Sicard, R.
a26da4a1-1c23-4a26-b16a-0947513c962d
Calder, P.C.
1797e54f-378e-4dcb-80a4-3e30018f07a6
Gleeson, M.
fdea7fee-a738-46f9-94e8-8a396520fc75
Lesourd, B.
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Samartin, S.I.R.
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Van Loo, J.
e4de3f9b-8111-4b18-903b-d042f11ef387
Vas Dias, F. W.
f4b089fb-b07e-43c3-9cf6-87f080b02392
Watzl, B.
e3909f88-5054-421d-b1b4-9586f2ec60fc
Albers, R.
63eb3d3b-2052-4ad1-a7aa-888a6781c5e0
Antoine, J.M.
5ba5f978-1140-4f4f-a490-50d88801a4ce
Bourdet-Sicard, R.
a26da4a1-1c23-4a26-b16a-0947513c962d
Calder, P.C.
1797e54f-378e-4dcb-80a4-3e30018f07a6
Gleeson, M.
fdea7fee-a738-46f9-94e8-8a396520fc75
Lesourd, B.
6a529e1b-3578-45c8-921d-2b048badae06
Samartin, S.I.R.
5c9d01aa-321d-485b-a44d-59143dac6063
Van Loo, J.
e4de3f9b-8111-4b18-903b-d042f11ef387
Vas Dias, F. W.
f4b089fb-b07e-43c3-9cf6-87f080b02392
Watzl, B.
e3909f88-5054-421d-b1b4-9586f2ec60fc

Albers, R., Antoine, J.M., Bourdet-Sicard, R., Calder, P.C., Gleeson, M., Lesourd, B., Samartin, S.I.R., Van Loo, J., Vas Dias, F. W. and Watzl, B. (2005) Markers to measure immunomodulation in human nutrition intervention studies. British Journal of Nutrition, 94 (3), 452-481. (doi:10.1079/BJN20051469).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Normal functioning of the immune system is crucial to the health of man, and diet is one of the major exogenous factors modulating individual immunocompetence. Recently, nutrition research has focused on the role of foods or specific food components in enhancing immune system responsiveness to challenges and thereby improving health and reducing disease risks. Assessing diet-induced changes of immune function, however, requires a thorough methodological approach targeting a large spectrum of immune system parameters. Currently, no single marker is available to predict the outcome of a dietary intervention on the resistance to infection or to other immune system-related diseases. The present review summarises the immune function assays commonly used as markers in human intervention studies and evaluates their biological relevance (e.g. known correlation with clinically relevant endpoints), sensitivity (e.g. within- and between-subject variation), and practical feasibility. Based on these criteria markers were classified into three categories with high, medium or low suitability. Vaccine-specific serum antibody production, delayed-type hypersensitivity response, vaccine-specific or total secretory IgA in saliva and the response to attenuated pathogens, were classified as markers with high suitability. Markers with medium suitability include natural killer cell cytotoxicity, oxidative burst of phagocytes, lymphocyte proliferation and the cytokine pattern produced by activated immune cells. Since no single marker allows conclusions to be drawn about the modulation of the whole immune system, except for the clinical outcome of infection itself, combining markers with high and medium suitability is currently the best approach to measure immunomodulation in human nutrition intervention studies. It would be valuable to include several immune markers in addition to clinical outcome in future clinical trials in this area, as there is too little evidence that correlates markers with global health improvement.

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Published date: 2005
Keywords: Immune function, marker, diet, human studies, infections

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Local EPrints ID: 25193
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/25193
ISSN: 0007-1145
PURE UUID: 0326be01-bccd-4d4d-976f-b39bacd77ad9

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Date deposited: 07 Apr 2006
Last modified: 15 Jul 2019 19:16

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Contributors

Author: R. Albers
Author: J.M. Antoine
Author: R. Bourdet-Sicard
Author: P.C. Calder
Author: M. Gleeson
Author: B. Lesourd
Author: S.I.R. Samartin
Author: J. Van Loo
Author: F. W. Vas Dias
Author: B. Watzl

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