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Truncal Adiposity is Present at Birth and in Early Childhood in South Indian Children

Record type: Article

Objectives: muscle-thin but adipose (‘thin-fat’) body composition of south Asian adults contributes to their high risk of type 2 diabetes. Studies in Pune, India showed that this phenotype is present at birth. We aimed to determine if south Indian babies have a ‘thin-fat’ phenotype and if this persists in childhood.
Design: prospective cohort study.
Setting: Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India
Subjects: children (n = 663) whose mothers were recruited from the antenatal clinics.
Methods: weight, length, head, mid-upper-arm, abdominal circumferences; triceps and subscapular skinfolds were measured at birth, one and four years, and compared with white Caucasian babies born in Southampton, UK (birth), and UK and Dutch growth standards (one and four years).
Results: Mysore babies were lighter (2983g vs 3472 g; –1.10 SD, CI –1.16, –1.02) and smaller in all body measurements than UK neonates (P<0.001). The deficit was greatest for mid-upper- arm (–1.07 SD), head (-0.89 SD) and abdominal circumferences (–0.73 SD), and least for length (–0.25 SD) and subscapular skinfold thickness (–0.19 SD). Predictors of skinfold thickness were maternal body mass index (P<0.001) and socio-economic status (P = 0.05). At four years, subscapular skinfold thickness was larger than UK (+0.18 SD, CI +0.11, +0.25; P<0.001) and Dutch standards (+0.61 SD, CI +0.51, +0.71; P<0.001), despite all other body measurements remaining smaller. Predictors of 4-year skinfold thickness were neonatal skinfold thickness (P = 0.001) and maternal insulin concentrations (P = 0.05).
Conclusions: Mysore newborns have a ‘thin-fat’ phenotype. This may reflect the action of genes and/or the ‘maternal environment’. The phenotype persists in childhood, and may be the forerunner of a diabetogenic adult phenotype.

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Citation

Krishnaveni, G.V., Hill, J.C., Veena, S.R., Leary, S.D., Saperia, J., Chachyamma, K.J., Karat, S.C. and Fall, C.H.D. (2005) Truncal Adiposity is Present at Birth and in Early Childhood in South Indian Children Indian Pediatrics, 42, (6), pp. 527-538.

More information

Published date: 2005
Additional Information: June issue
Keywords: body fat, children, newborns, South Asia, truncal adiposity

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 25731
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/25731
ISSN: 0019-6061
PURE UUID: 16ccb41b-f115-477d-abe0-0846c081ec49

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 10 Apr 2006
Last modified: 17 Jul 2017 16:09

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Contributors

Author: G.V. Krishnaveni
Author: J.C. Hill
Author: S.R. Veena
Author: S.D. Leary
Author: J. Saperia
Author: K.J. Chachyamma
Author: S.C. Karat
Author: C.H.D. Fall

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