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Can microgrids make a major contribution to UK energy supply

Can microgrids make a major contribution to UK energy supply
Can microgrids make a major contribution to UK energy supply
Almost all the electricity currently produced in the UK is generated as part of a centralised power system designed around large fossil fuel or nuclear power stations. This power system is robust and reliable but the efficiency of power generation is low, resulting in large quantities of waste heat. The principal aim of this paper is to investigate an alternative concept: the energy production by small scale generators in close proximity to the energy users, integrated into microgrids.
Microgrids—de-centralised electricity generation combined with on-site production of heat—bear the promise of substantial environmental benefits, brought about by a higher energy efficiency and by facilitating the integration of renewable sources such as photovoltaic arrays or wind turbines. By virtue of good match between generation and load, microgrids have a low impact on the electricity network, despite a potentially significant level of generation by intermittent energy sources. The paper discusses the technical and economic issues associated with this novel concept, giving an overview of the generator technologies, the current regulatory framework in the UK, and the barriers that have to be overcome if microgrids are to make a major contribution to the UK energy supply.
The focus of this study is a microgrid of domestic users powered by small Combined Heat and Power generators and photovoltaics. Focusing on the energy balance between the generation and load, it is found that the optimum combination of the generators in the microgrid- consisting of around 1.4 kWp PV array per household and 45% household ownership of micro-CHP generators- will maintain energy balance on a yearly basis if supplemented by energy storage of 2.7 kWh per household.
We find that there is no fundamental technological reason why microgrids cannot contribute an appreciable part of the UK energy demand. Indeed, an estimate of cost indicates that the microgrids considered in this study would supply electricity at a cost comparable with the present electricity supply if the current support mechanisms for photovoltaics were maintained.
Combining photovoltaics and micro-CHP and a small battery requirement gives a microgrid that is independent of the national electricity network. In the short term, this has particular benefits for remote communities but more wide-ranging possibilities open up in the medium to long term. Microgrids could meet the need to replace current generation nuclear and coal fired power stations, greatly reducing the demand on the transmission and distribution network.
microgrids, micro-CHP, photovoltaics, combined heat and power
1364-0321
78-127
Abu-Sharkh, Suleiman
c8445516-dafe-41c2-b7e8-c21e295e56b9
Arnold, RJ
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Kohler, J
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Li, R
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Markvart, Tomas
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Ross, J.N.
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Steemers, K
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Wilson, Peter R.
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Yao, R
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Abu-Sharkh, Suleiman
c8445516-dafe-41c2-b7e8-c21e295e56b9
Arnold, RJ
0c93a556-7b87-48e8-80d8-278b94818cfe
Kohler, J
feec0d35-5140-4319-949f-02ead94f9e05
Li, R
e7f1992f-72d9-4ca6-9986-30f70b3e5be8
Markvart, Tomas
f21e82ec-4e3b-4485-9f27-ffc0102fdf1c
Ross, J.N.
8f51f3ad-9842-444f-ae24-4a454d33fa48
Steemers, K
3cf70e64-ab4d-4468-b5ad-c5d0c4238574
Wilson, Peter R.
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Yao, R
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Abu-Sharkh, Suleiman, Arnold, RJ, Kohler, J, Li, R, Markvart, Tomas, Ross, J.N., Steemers, K, Wilson, Peter R. and Yao, R (2006) Can microgrids make a major contribution to UK energy supply. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 10 (2), 78-127. (doi:10.1016/j.rser.2004.09.013).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Almost all the electricity currently produced in the UK is generated as part of a centralised power system designed around large fossil fuel or nuclear power stations. This power system is robust and reliable but the efficiency of power generation is low, resulting in large quantities of waste heat. The principal aim of this paper is to investigate an alternative concept: the energy production by small scale generators in close proximity to the energy users, integrated into microgrids.
Microgrids—de-centralised electricity generation combined with on-site production of heat—bear the promise of substantial environmental benefits, brought about by a higher energy efficiency and by facilitating the integration of renewable sources such as photovoltaic arrays or wind turbines. By virtue of good match between generation and load, microgrids have a low impact on the electricity network, despite a potentially significant level of generation by intermittent energy sources. The paper discusses the technical and economic issues associated with this novel concept, giving an overview of the generator technologies, the current regulatory framework in the UK, and the barriers that have to be overcome if microgrids are to make a major contribution to the UK energy supply.
The focus of this study is a microgrid of domestic users powered by small Combined Heat and Power generators and photovoltaics. Focusing on the energy balance between the generation and load, it is found that the optimum combination of the generators in the microgrid- consisting of around 1.4 kWp PV array per household and 45% household ownership of micro-CHP generators- will maintain energy balance on a yearly basis if supplemented by energy storage of 2.7 kWh per household.
We find that there is no fundamental technological reason why microgrids cannot contribute an appreciable part of the UK energy demand. Indeed, an estimate of cost indicates that the microgrids considered in this study would supply electricity at a cost comparable with the present electricity supply if the current support mechanisms for photovoltaics were maintained.
Combining photovoltaics and micro-CHP and a small battery requirement gives a microgrid that is independent of the national electricity network. In the short term, this has particular benefits for remote communities but more wide-ranging possibilities open up in the medium to long term. Microgrids could meet the need to replace current generation nuclear and coal fired power stations, greatly reducing the demand on the transmission and distribution network.

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More information

Published date: January 2006
Keywords: microgrids, micro-CHP, photovoltaics, combined heat and power
Organisations: EEE

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Local EPrints ID: 261276
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/261276
ISSN: 1364-0321
PURE UUID: 2c68f8fd-a4fa-4bda-97b5-c4c8458c37fd

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Date deposited: 26 Jan 2006
Last modified: 25 Nov 2021 17:05

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Contributors

Author: RJ Arnold
Author: J Kohler
Author: R Li
Author: Tomas Markvart
Author: J.N. Ross
Author: K Steemers
Author: Peter R. Wilson
Author: R Yao

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