The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

?-glucan, water dikinase (GWD): a plastidic enzyme with redox-regulated and coordinated catalytic activity and binding affinity

Mikkelsen, René, Mutenda, Kudzai E., Mant, Alexandra, Schürmann, Peter and Blennow, Andreas (2005) ?-glucan, water dikinase (GWD): a plastidic enzyme with redox-regulated and coordinated catalytic activity and binding affinity Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102, (5), pp. 1785-1790. (doi:10.1073/pnas.0406674102).

Record type: Article


The recently discovered potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum) {alpha}-glucan, water dikinase (GWD) (formerly known as R1) catalyzes the phosphorylation of starch by a dikinase-type reaction mechanism in which the {beta}-phosphate of ATP is transferred to either the C-6 or the C-3 position of the glucosyl residue of starch. In the present study, we found that the GWD enzyme is inactive in the oxidized form, which is accompanied by the formation of a specific intramolecular disulfide bond as determined by disulfide-linked peptide mapping. The regulatory properties of this disulfide linkage were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis studies. Both reduced thioredoxin (Trx) f and Trx m from spinach leaves reduced and activated oxidized GWD at very low concentrations, with Trx f being the more efficient, yielding an S0.5 value of 0.4 µM. Interestingly, GWD displays a reversible and selective binding to starch granules depending on the illumination state of the plant. Here we show that starch granule-bound GWD isolated from dark-adapted plants exists in the inactive, oxidized form, which is capable of reactivation upon treatment with reduced Trx. Furthermore, the soluble form of GWD was found in its fully reduced state, providing evidence of a Trx-controlled regulation mechanism linking enzymatic activity and specific binding affinities of a protein to an intracellular surface. The regulatory site sequence, CFATC, of potato GWD is conserved in chloroplast-targeted GWDs from other species, suggesting an overall redox regulation of the GWD enzyme.

Full text not available from this repository.

More information

Published date: 2005
Keywords: starch, redox regulation, thioredoxin
Organisations: Cancer Sciences


Local EPrints ID: 26484
ISSN: 0027-8424
PURE UUID: dce6f6eb-5d4e-4e73-b202-94f68133a1a7

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 12 Apr 2006
Last modified: 17 Jul 2017 16:07

Export record



Author: René Mikkelsen
Author: Kudzai E. Mutenda
Author: Alexandra Mant
Author: Peter Schürmann
Author: Andreas Blennow

University divisions

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton:

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.