The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

Semidefinite programming relaxation based virtually antipodal detection for MIMO systems using Gray-coded high-order QAM

Yang, Shaoshi, Lv, Tiejun and Hanzo, Lajos (2013) Semidefinite programming relaxation based virtually antipodal detection for MIMO systems using Gray-coded high-order QAM IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 62, (4), pp. 1667-1677. (doi:10.1109/TVT.2012.2235190).

Record type: Article


An efficient generalized semidefinite programming relaxation (SDPR) based virtually antipodal (VA) detection approach is proposed for Gray-coded high-order rectangular quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signalling over multiple-input--multiple-output (MIMO) channels. Albeit the decomposition of symbol-based detection to a bit-based one is desirable owing to its reduced complexity and increased flexibility, Gray-mapping is nonlinear, and hence the direct bit-based detection of Gray-coded-QAM MIMO systems constitutes a challenging problem. In this paper, we find a way of exploiting the structural regularity of Gray-coded high-order rectangular QAM, and transforms the classic symbol-based MIMO detection model to a low-complexity bit-based detection model. As an appealing benefit, the conventional three-step "signal-to-symbols-to-bits" decision process can be substituted by a simpler "signal-to-bits" decision process for the classic Gray-mapping aided high-order rectangular QAM, and hence any bit-based detection method becomes potentially applicable. As an application example, we propose a direct-bit-based VA-SDPR (DVA-SDPR) MIMO detector, which is capable of directly making binary decisions concerning the individual information bits of the ubiquitous Gray-mapping aided high-order rectangular QAM, while dispensing with symbol-based detection. Furthermore, the proposed model transformation method facilitates the exploitation of the unequal error protection (UEP) property of high-order QAM with the aid of the low-complexity bit-flipping based "hill climbing" method. As a result, the proposed DVA-SDPR detector achieves the best bit error ratio (BER) performance among the known SDPR-based MIMO detectors in the context considered, while still maintaining the lowest-possible worst-case complexity order of O (NT log2M + 1)3.5.

PDF 06392307.pdf - Accepted Manuscript
Download (930kB)

More information

Published date: May 2013
Keywords: binary constrained quadratic programming, gray mapping, primal-dual interior-point algorithm, pd-iba, high-order qam, semide?nite programming relaxation, sdpr, virtually-antipodal detection
Organisations: Southampton Wireless Group


Local EPrints ID: 273144
ISSN: 0018-9545
PURE UUID: 1efe2638-0fe6-4bdf-90f6-750f3b025711

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 28 Jan 2012 20:24
Last modified: 18 Jul 2017 06:16

Export record



Author: Shaoshi Yang
Author: Tiejun Lv
Author: Lajos Hanzo

University divisions

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton:

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.