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From seas to surgeries, from babbling brooks to baby scans: the acoustics of gas bubbles in liquids

From seas to surgeries, from babbling brooks to baby scans: the acoustics of gas bubbles in liquids
From seas to surgeries, from babbling brooks to baby scans: the acoustics of gas bubbles in liquids
Gas bubbles are the most potent naturally-occurring entities that influence the acoustic environment in liquids. Upon entrainment under breaking waves, waterfalls, or rainfall over water, each bubble undergoes small amplitude decaying pulsations with a natural frequency that varies approximately inversely with the bubble radius, giving rise to the "plink" of a dripping tap or the roar of a cataract. When they occur in their millions per cubic metre in the top few metres of the ocean, bubbles can dominate the underwater sound field. Similarly, when driven by an incident sound field, bubbles exhibit a strong pulsation resonance. Acoustic scatter by bubbles can confound sonar in the shallow waters which typify many modern maritime military operations. If they are driven by sound fields of sufficient amplitude, the bubble pulsations can become highly nonlinear. These nonlinearities might be exploited to enhance sonar, or to monitor the bubble population. Such oceanic monitoring is important, for example, because of the significant contribution made by bubbles to the greenhouse gas budget. In industry, bubble monitoring is required for sparging, electrochemical processes, the production of paints, pharamaceuticals and foodstuffs. At yet higher amplitudes of pulsation, gas compression within the collapsing bubble can generate temperatures of several thousand Kelvin whilst, in the liquid, shock waves and shear can produce erosion and bioeffects. Not only can these effects be exploited in industrial cleaning and manufacturing, and research into novel chemical processes, but we need to understand (and if possible control) their occurrence when biomedical ultrasound is passed through the body. This is because the potential of such bubble-related physical and chemical processes to damage tissue will be desireable in some circumstances (e.g. ultrasonic kidney stone therapy), and undesireable in others (e.g. foetal scanning). This paper describes this range of behaviour. Further information on these topics, including sound and video files, can be found at http://www.isvr.soton.ac.uk/fdag/ijmpb.htm.
bubbles, cavitation, acoustics, ultrasound, sonar, cetacean, sonochemistry, erosion, bioeffect, waterfall, lithotripsy, acoustical oceanography, faraday waves
3267-3314
Leighton, T.G.
3e5262ce-1d7d-42eb-b013-fcc5c286bbae
Leighton, T.G.
3e5262ce-1d7d-42eb-b013-fcc5c286bbae

Leighton, T.G. (2004) From seas to surgeries, from babbling brooks to baby scans: the acoustics of gas bubbles in liquids. International Journal of Modern Physics B, 18 (25), 3267-3314.

Record type: Article

Abstract

Gas bubbles are the most potent naturally-occurring entities that influence the acoustic environment in liquids. Upon entrainment under breaking waves, waterfalls, or rainfall over water, each bubble undergoes small amplitude decaying pulsations with a natural frequency that varies approximately inversely with the bubble radius, giving rise to the "plink" of a dripping tap or the roar of a cataract. When they occur in their millions per cubic metre in the top few metres of the ocean, bubbles can dominate the underwater sound field. Similarly, when driven by an incident sound field, bubbles exhibit a strong pulsation resonance. Acoustic scatter by bubbles can confound sonar in the shallow waters which typify many modern maritime military operations. If they are driven by sound fields of sufficient amplitude, the bubble pulsations can become highly nonlinear. These nonlinearities might be exploited to enhance sonar, or to monitor the bubble population. Such oceanic monitoring is important, for example, because of the significant contribution made by bubbles to the greenhouse gas budget. In industry, bubble monitoring is required for sparging, electrochemical processes, the production of paints, pharamaceuticals and foodstuffs. At yet higher amplitudes of pulsation, gas compression within the collapsing bubble can generate temperatures of several thousand Kelvin whilst, in the liquid, shock waves and shear can produce erosion and bioeffects. Not only can these effects be exploited in industrial cleaning and manufacturing, and research into novel chemical processes, but we need to understand (and if possible control) their occurrence when biomedical ultrasound is passed through the body. This is because the potential of such bubble-related physical and chemical processes to damage tissue will be desireable in some circumstances (e.g. ultrasonic kidney stone therapy), and undesireable in others (e.g. foetal scanning). This paper describes this range of behaviour. Further information on these topics, including sound and video files, can be found at http://www.isvr.soton.ac.uk/fdag/ijmpb.htm.

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Published date: October 2004
Keywords: bubbles, cavitation, acoustics, ultrasound, sonar, cetacean, sonochemistry, erosion, bioeffect, waterfall, lithotripsy, acoustical oceanography, faraday waves

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 27995
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/27995
PURE UUID: 46c9e0fa-c899-4361-8875-b5713edf85fd
ORCID for T.G. Leighton: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-1649-8750

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 02 May 2006
Last modified: 06 Jun 2018 13:08

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