Landsberg, P.T. and Markvart, T.
The Carnot factor in solar cell theory
Solid-State Electronics, 42, (4), . (doi:10.1016/S0038-1101(97)00253-0).
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In a two-level system the open circuit voltage or difference between the electro-chemical potentials at the contacts, is related to the energy gap Eg by a Carnot factor;V=(1-Ts/Tp)Eg.Here, Ts and Tp are the absolute temperatures of the ambient (surroundings) and of the incident black-body radiation (''pump''), respectively. A simple two-step statistical thermodynamic argument is given here which makes this result plausible. Its standing in a more general context is also discussed.
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