On some sample size formulae for controlling both size and power in clinical trials.
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series D (The Statistician), 46, (2), . (doi:10.1111/1467-9884.00080).
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Suppose that observations are taken from a population with normal distribution N(?, ?2) where both ? and ?2 are unknown parameters. Our goal is to design a two-sided test of H0: ? = 0 against Ha: ?? 0 which has, at least approximately, size ? and power ? at |?| = d> 0, where ?, ? and d are three preassigned constants. The classical solution is Stein's two-stage procedure, which tends to oversampling, however. Three new procedures are proposed and studied in this paper. They all have both size and power very close to the target values ? and ? and require only a few more observations than the necessary sample size to achieve our goal if ?2 had been completely known.
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