Ersoy, Yalçın E., Helvacı, Cahit and Palmer, Martin R.
Petrogenesis of the Neogene volcanic units in the NE–SW-trending basins in western Anatolia, Turkey
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 163, (3), . (doi:10.1007/s00410-011-0679-3).
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The western Anatolian volcanic province formed during Eocene to Recent times is one of the major volcanic belts in the Aegean–western Anatolian region. We present new chemical (whole-rock major and trace elements, and Sr, Nd, Pb and O isotopes) and new Ar/Ar age data from the Miocene volcanic rocks in the NE–SW-trending Neogene basins that formed on the northern part of the Menderes Massif during its exhumation as a core complex. The early-middle Miocene volcanic rocks are classified as high-K calc-alkaline (HKVR), shoshonitic (SHVR) and ultrapotassic (UKVR), with the Late Miocene basalts being transitional between the early-middle Miocene volcanics and the Na-alkaline Quaternary Kula volcanics (QKV). The early-middle Miocene volcanic rocks are strongly enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE), have high 87Sr/86Sr(i) (0.70631–0.71001), low 143Nd/144Nd(i) (0.512145–0.512488) and high Pb isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb = 18.838–19.148; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.672–15.725; 208Pb/204Pb = 38.904–39.172). The high field strength element (HFSE) ratios of the most primitive early-middle Miocene volcanic rocks indicate that they were derived from a mantle source with a primitive mantle (PM)-like composition. The HFSE ratios of the late Miocene basalts and QKV, on the other hand, indicate an OIB-like mantle origin—a hypothesis that is supported by their trace element patterns and isotopic compositions. The HFSE ratios of the early-middle Miocene volcanic rocks also indicate that their mantle source was distinct from those of the Eocene volcanic rocks located further north, and of the other volcanic provinces in the region. The mantle source of the SHVR and UKVR was influenced by (1) trace element and isotopic enrichment by subduction-related metasomatic events and (2) trace element enrichment by “multi-stage melting and melt percolation” processes in the lithospheric mantle. The contemporaneous SHVR and UKVR show little effect of upper crustal contamination. Trace element ratios of the HKVR indicate that they were derived mainly from lower continental crustal melts which then mixed with mantle-derived lavas (~20–40%). The HKVR then underwent differentiation from andesites to rhyolites via nearly pure fractional crystallization processes in the upper crust, such that have undergone a two-stage petrogenetic evolution.
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