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Ovarian and cervical cancer awareness: development of two validated measurement tools

Simon, Alice E., Wardle, Jane, Grimmett, Chloe, Power, Emily, Corker, Elizabeth, Menson, Usha, Matheson, Lauren and Waller, Jo (2011) Ovarian and cervical cancer awareness: development of two validated measurement tools Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care (doi:10.1136/jfprhc-2011-100118). (PMID:21933805).

Record type: Article


Background The aim of the study was to develop and validate measures of awareness of symptoms and risk factors for ovarian and cervical cancer (Ovarian and Cervical Cancer Awareness Measures).

Methods Potentially relevant items were extracted from the literature and generated by experts. Four validation studies were carried out to establish reliability and validity. Women aged 21–67 years (n=146) and ovarian and cervical cancer experts (n=32) were included in the studies. Internal reliability was assessed psychometrically. Test-retest reliability was assessed over a 1-week interval. To establish construct validity, Cancer Awareness Measure (CAM) scores of cancer experts were compared with equally well-educated comparison groups. Sensitivity to change was tested by randomly assigning participants to read either a leaflet giving information about ovarian/cervical cancer or a leaflet with control information, and then completing the ovarian/cervical CAM.

Results Internal reliability (Cronbach's ?=0.88 for the ovarian CAM and ?=0.84 for the cervical CAM) and test-retest reliability (r=0.84 and r=0.77 for the ovarian and cervical CAMs, respectively) were both high. Validity was demonstrated with cancer experts achieving higher scores than controls [ovarian CAM: t(36)= –5.6, p<0.001; cervical CAM: t(38)= –3.7, p=0.001], and volunteers who were randomised to read a cancer leaflet scored higher than those who received a control leaflet [ovarian CAM: t(49)=7.5, p<0.001; cervical CAM: t(48)= –5.5, p<0.001].

Conclusions This study demonstrates the psychometric properties of the ovarian and cervical CAMs and supports their utility in assessing ovarian and cervical cancer awareness in the general population.

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More information

e-pub ahead of print date: 20 September 2011
Organisations: Faculty of Health Sciences


Local EPrints ID: 336762
ISSN: 1471-1893
PURE UUID: 2abf03f9-2618-4863-9591-ee7f0f66f82c
ORCID for Chloe Grimmett: ORCID iD

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Date deposited: 03 Apr 2012 15:42
Last modified: 18 Jul 2017 06:06

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Author: Alice E. Simon
Author: Jane Wardle
Author: Chloe Grimmett ORCID iD
Author: Emily Power
Author: Elizabeth Corker
Author: Usha Menson
Author: Lauren Matheson
Author: Jo Waller

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