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Predictive adaptive responses in Drosophila melanogaster

Predictive adaptive responses in Drosophila melanogaster
Predictive adaptive responses in Drosophila melanogaster
Predictive Adaptive Responses are changes in development made in the perinatal period
in response to maternally transmitted information, and a mismatch between the diet
selected during human evolution and the contemporary Western diet can produce an
adult phenotype characterised by weight gain, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and
diabetes. In humans, most evidence is epidemiological. Using Drosophila melanogaster, the problem can be approached from an adaptive phenotypic plasticity perspective. Health effects in humans stem from predictive adaptations made to enhance fitness and so it must first be shown that D. melanogaster make these responses. To model the human dietary transition, two equivalent fly diets were designed, one a human Palaeolithic diet and the other a contemporary Western diet. Using isofemale lines, flies were swapped between diets over three generations and fitness indicators measured in the offspring generation. Fitness indicator responses to a range of diets differing in protein: carbohydrate ratio and total macronutrient content were also investigated. There were adaptive, compensatory effects on survival rate and male thorax size from parental diet, and development time from grandparental diets, but also non-adaptive effects on development time and female thorax size from the parental diets. Higher dietary protein: carbohydrate ratios reduced development time and increased thorax size and survival rate, while increased macronutrient content increased weight, lipid content and survival. Diet had no effect on ommatidia number relative to fly size. Whether a response to diet is predictive and adaptive depends not only on diet composition, but whether offspring, parents or grandparents consumed the diet, the phenotypic character measured and the genotype of the fly. The variety of responses in relation to parental and grandparental diets show that intergenerational effects are complex, and D. melanogaster is a suitable model to help unravel the causes of human
diseases.
Shannon, Roger
db3a1d3c-6226-42ed-9c54-03d5bccc4281
Shannon, Roger
db3a1d3c-6226-42ed-9c54-03d5bccc4281
Kraaijeveld, Alex
4af1791a-15cf-48b9-9fd8-b3a7fb450409
Newland, Philip
7a018c0e-37ba-40f5-bbf6-49ab0f299dbb

Shannon, Roger (2011) Predictive adaptive responses in Drosophila melanogaster. University of Southampton, Biological Sciences, Doctoral Thesis, 284pp.

Record type: Thesis (Doctoral)

Abstract

Predictive Adaptive Responses are changes in development made in the perinatal period
in response to maternally transmitted information, and a mismatch between the diet
selected during human evolution and the contemporary Western diet can produce an
adult phenotype characterised by weight gain, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and
diabetes. In humans, most evidence is epidemiological. Using Drosophila melanogaster, the problem can be approached from an adaptive phenotypic plasticity perspective. Health effects in humans stem from predictive adaptations made to enhance fitness and so it must first be shown that D. melanogaster make these responses. To model the human dietary transition, two equivalent fly diets were designed, one a human Palaeolithic diet and the other a contemporary Western diet. Using isofemale lines, flies were swapped between diets over three generations and fitness indicators measured in the offspring generation. Fitness indicator responses to a range of diets differing in protein: carbohydrate ratio and total macronutrient content were also investigated. There were adaptive, compensatory effects on survival rate and male thorax size from parental diet, and development time from grandparental diets, but also non-adaptive effects on development time and female thorax size from the parental diets. Higher dietary protein: carbohydrate ratios reduced development time and increased thorax size and survival rate, while increased macronutrient content increased weight, lipid content and survival. Diet had no effect on ommatidia number relative to fly size. Whether a response to diet is predictive and adaptive depends not only on diet composition, but whether offspring, parents or grandparents consumed the diet, the phenotypic character measured and the genotype of the fly. The variety of responses in relation to parental and grandparental diets show that intergenerational effects are complex, and D. melanogaster is a suitable model to help unravel the causes of human
diseases.

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More information

Published date: 30 September 2011
Organisations: University of Southampton, Centre for Biological Sciences

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 338975
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/338975
PURE UUID: 055d7928-f83a-4c6a-bb45-a941f32f85c8
ORCID for Alex Kraaijeveld: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-8543-2640
ORCID for Philip Newland: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-4124-8507

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 27 Jun 2012 15:24
Last modified: 13 Jun 2019 00:38

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Contributors

Author: Roger Shannon
Thesis advisor: Alex Kraaijeveld ORCID iD
Thesis advisor: Philip Newland ORCID iD

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