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Long term impact of systemic bacterial infection on the cerebral vasculature and microglia

Long term impact of systemic bacterial infection on the cerebral vasculature and microglia
Long term impact of systemic bacterial infection on the cerebral vasculature and microglia
Background: Systemic infection leads to generation of inflammatory mediators that result in metabolic and behavioural changes. Repeated or chronic systemic inflammation leads to a state of innate immune tolerance: a protective mechanism against over-activity of the immune system. In this study we investigated the immune adaptation of microglia and brain vascular endothelial cells in response to systemic inflammation or bacterial infection. Methods: Mice were given repeated doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or a single injection of live Salmonella typhimurium. Inflammatory cytokines were measured in serum, spleen and brain, and microglial phenotype studied by immunohistochemistry.
mice were infected with Salmonella typhimurium and subsequently challenged with a focal unilateral, intracerebral injection of LPS. Results: Repeated systemic LPS challenges resulted in increased brain IL-1?, TNF? and IL-12 levels, despite attenuated systemic cytokine production. Each LPS challenge induced significant changes in burrowing behaviour. In contrast, brain IL-1? and IL-12 levels in Salmonella typhimurium infected mice increased over three weeks, with high interferon-? levels in the circulation. Behavioural changes were only observed during the acute phase of the infection. Microglia and cerebral vasculature display an activated phenotype, and focal intracerebral injection of LPS 4 weeks after infection results in an exaggerated local inflammatory response when compared to non-infected mice. Conclusions: These studies reveal that the innate immune cells in the brain do not become tolerant to systemic infection, but are primed instead. This may lead to prolonged and damaging cytokine production that may have a
profound effect on the onset and/ or progression of pre-existing neurodegenerative disease.Humans and animals are regularly exposed to bacterial and viral pathogens that can have a considerable impact on our day-to-day living [1]. Upon infection, a set of immune, physiological, metabolic, and behavioural responses is initiated, representing a highly organized strategy of the organism to fight infection. Pro-inflammatory mediators generated in peripheral tissue communicate with the brain to modify behaviour [2], which aids our ability to fight and eliminate the pathogen. The communication pathways from the site of inflammation to the brain have been investigated in animal models and systemic challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or double stranded RNA (poly I:C) have been widely used to mimic aspects of bacterial and viral infection respectively [3, 4]. These studies have provided evidence that systemically generated inflammatory mediators signal to the brain via both neural and humoral routes, the latter signalling via the circumventricular organs or across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Signalling into the brain via these routes evokes a response in the perivascular macrophages (PVMs) and microglia, which in turn synthesise diverse inflammatory mediators including cytokines, prostaglandins and nitric oxide [2, 5, 6]. Immune-to-brain communication also occurs in humans who show changes in mood and cognition following systemic inflammation or infection, which are associated with changes in activity in particular regions of the CNS [7-9]. While these changes are part of our normal homeostasis, it is increasingly evident that systemic inflammation has a detrimental effect in animals and also humans, that suffer from chronic neurodegeneration [10, 11]. We, and others, have shown that microglia become primed by on-going neuropathology in the brain, which increases their response towards subsequent inflammatory stimuli, including systemic inflammation [12, 13] Similar findings have been made in aged rodents [14, 15], where it has been shown that there is an exaggerated behavioural and innate immune response in the brainto systemic bacterial and viral infections, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the microglial priming under these conditions is far from understood.
Humans and animals are rarely exposed to a single acute systemic inflammatory event: they rather encounter infectious pathogens that replicate in vivo or are exposed to low concentrations of LPS over a prolonged period of time. There is limited information on the impact of non-neurotrophic bacterial infections on the CNS and whether prolonged systemic inflammation will give rise to either a hyper-(priming) or hypo-(tolerance) innate immune response in the brain in response to a subsequent inflammatory stimulus.
In this study we measured the levels of cytokines in the serum, spleen and brain as well as assessing sickness behaviour following a systemic bacterial infection using attenuated Salmonella typhimurium SL3261: we compared the effect to that of repeated LPS injections. We show that Salmonella typhimurium caused acute, transient behavioural changes and a robust peripheral immune response that peaks at day 7. Systemic inflammation resulted in a delayed increase in cytokine production in the brain and priming of microglia, which persisted up to four weeks post infection. These effects were not mimicked by repeated LPS challenges. It is well recognised that systemic bacterial and viral infections are significant contributors to morbidity in the elderly [16], and it has been suggested that primed microglia play a role in the increased clinical symptoms seen in patients with Alzheimer’s disease who have systemic inflammation or infections [11, 17]. We show here that systemic infection leads to prolonged cytokine synthesis in the brain and also priming of brain innate immune cells to a subsequent focal inflammatory challenge in the brain parenchyma.
1742-2094
Puentener, U.
cce6ce1a-2a7d-4cae-903d-b9a91bb0cd86
Booth, S.
c2026d9d-ed93-4b1b-bce5-6b3efc8b8ca5
Perry, V. Hugh
8f29d36a-8e1f-4082-8700-09483bbaeae4
Teeling, Jessica L.
fcde1c8e-e5f8-4747-9f3a-6bdb5cd87d0a
Puentener, U.
cce6ce1a-2a7d-4cae-903d-b9a91bb0cd86
Booth, S.
c2026d9d-ed93-4b1b-bce5-6b3efc8b8ca5
Perry, V. Hugh
8f29d36a-8e1f-4082-8700-09483bbaeae4
Teeling, Jessica L.
fcde1c8e-e5f8-4747-9f3a-6bdb5cd87d0a

Puentener, U., Booth, S., Perry, V. Hugh and Teeling, Jessica L. (2012) Long term impact of systemic bacterial infection on the cerebral vasculature and microglia. Journal of Neuroinflammation.

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background: Systemic infection leads to generation of inflammatory mediators that result in metabolic and behavioural changes. Repeated or chronic systemic inflammation leads to a state of innate immune tolerance: a protective mechanism against over-activity of the immune system. In this study we investigated the immune adaptation of microglia and brain vascular endothelial cells in response to systemic inflammation or bacterial infection. Methods: Mice were given repeated doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or a single injection of live Salmonella typhimurium. Inflammatory cytokines were measured in serum, spleen and brain, and microglial phenotype studied by immunohistochemistry.
mice were infected with Salmonella typhimurium and subsequently challenged with a focal unilateral, intracerebral injection of LPS. Results: Repeated systemic LPS challenges resulted in increased brain IL-1?, TNF? and IL-12 levels, despite attenuated systemic cytokine production. Each LPS challenge induced significant changes in burrowing behaviour. In contrast, brain IL-1? and IL-12 levels in Salmonella typhimurium infected mice increased over three weeks, with high interferon-? levels in the circulation. Behavioural changes were only observed during the acute phase of the infection. Microglia and cerebral vasculature display an activated phenotype, and focal intracerebral injection of LPS 4 weeks after infection results in an exaggerated local inflammatory response when compared to non-infected mice. Conclusions: These studies reveal that the innate immune cells in the brain do not become tolerant to systemic infection, but are primed instead. This may lead to prolonged and damaging cytokine production that may have a
profound effect on the onset and/ or progression of pre-existing neurodegenerative disease.Humans and animals are regularly exposed to bacterial and viral pathogens that can have a considerable impact on our day-to-day living [1]. Upon infection, a set of immune, physiological, metabolic, and behavioural responses is initiated, representing a highly organized strategy of the organism to fight infection. Pro-inflammatory mediators generated in peripheral tissue communicate with the brain to modify behaviour [2], which aids our ability to fight and eliminate the pathogen. The communication pathways from the site of inflammation to the brain have been investigated in animal models and systemic challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or double stranded RNA (poly I:C) have been widely used to mimic aspects of bacterial and viral infection respectively [3, 4]. These studies have provided evidence that systemically generated inflammatory mediators signal to the brain via both neural and humoral routes, the latter signalling via the circumventricular organs or across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Signalling into the brain via these routes evokes a response in the perivascular macrophages (PVMs) and microglia, which in turn synthesise diverse inflammatory mediators including cytokines, prostaglandins and nitric oxide [2, 5, 6]. Immune-to-brain communication also occurs in humans who show changes in mood and cognition following systemic inflammation or infection, which are associated with changes in activity in particular regions of the CNS [7-9]. While these changes are part of our normal homeostasis, it is increasingly evident that systemic inflammation has a detrimental effect in animals and also humans, that suffer from chronic neurodegeneration [10, 11]. We, and others, have shown that microglia become primed by on-going neuropathology in the brain, which increases their response towards subsequent inflammatory stimuli, including systemic inflammation [12, 13] Similar findings have been made in aged rodents [14, 15], where it has been shown that there is an exaggerated behavioural and innate immune response in the brainto systemic bacterial and viral infections, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the microglial priming under these conditions is far from understood.
Humans and animals are rarely exposed to a single acute systemic inflammatory event: they rather encounter infectious pathogens that replicate in vivo or are exposed to low concentrations of LPS over a prolonged period of time. There is limited information on the impact of non-neurotrophic bacterial infections on the CNS and whether prolonged systemic inflammation will give rise to either a hyper-(priming) or hypo-(tolerance) innate immune response in the brain in response to a subsequent inflammatory stimulus.
In this study we measured the levels of cytokines in the serum, spleen and brain as well as assessing sickness behaviour following a systemic bacterial infection using attenuated Salmonella typhimurium SL3261: we compared the effect to that of repeated LPS injections. We show that Salmonella typhimurium caused acute, transient behavioural changes and a robust peripheral immune response that peaks at day 7. Systemic inflammation resulted in a delayed increase in cytokine production in the brain and priming of microglia, which persisted up to four weeks post infection. These effects were not mimicked by repeated LPS challenges. It is well recognised that systemic bacterial and viral infections are significant contributors to morbidity in the elderly [16], and it has been suggested that primed microglia play a role in the increased clinical symptoms seen in patients with Alzheimer’s disease who have systemic inflammation or infections [11, 17]. We show here that systemic infection leads to prolonged cytokine synthesis in the brain and also priming of brain innate immune cells to a subsequent focal inflammatory challenge in the brain parenchyma.

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Accepted/In Press date: April 2012
Published date: 2012
Organisations: Faculty of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Biomedicine, Centre for Biological Sciences

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Local EPrints ID: 339170
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/339170
ISSN: 1742-2094
PURE UUID: 58c409c5-ea01-4883-9768-4105484bf822
ORCID for Jessica L. Teeling: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-4004-7391

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Date deposited: 24 May 2012 12:55
Last modified: 26 Nov 2019 01:46

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