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Size at birth, weight gain in infancy and childhood, and adult diabetes risk in five low-or-middle-income country birth cohorts

Norris, Shane A., Osmond, Clive, Gigante, Denise, Kuzawa, Christopher W., Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy, Lee, Nanette R., Ramirez-Zea, Manual, Richter, Linda M., Stein, Aryeh D., Tandon, Nikhil and Fall, Caroline H.D. (2012) Size at birth, weight gain in infancy and childhood, and adult diabetes risk in five low-or-middle-income country birth cohorts Diabetes Care, 35, (1), pp. 72-79. (doi:10.2337/dc11-0456). (PMID:22100968).

Record type: Article


Objective: We examined associations of birth weight and weight gain in infancy and early childhood with type 2 diabetes (DM) risk in five cohorts from low- and middle-income countries.

Research design and methods: Participants were 6,511 young adults from Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. Exposures were weight at birth, at 24 and 48 months, and adult weight, and conditional weight gain (CWG, deviation from expected weight gain) between these ages. Outcomes were adult fasting glucose, impaired fasting glucose or DM (IFG/DM), and insulin resistance homeostasis model assessment (IR-HOMA, three cohorts).

Results: Birth weight was inversely associated with adult glucose and risk of IFG/DM (odds ratio 0.91[95% CI 0.84–0.99] per SD). Weight at 24 and 48 months and CWG 0–24 and 24–48 months were unrelated to glucose and IFG/DM; however, CWG 48 months–adulthood was positively related to IFG/DM (1.32 [1.22–1.43] per SD). After adjusting for adult waist circumference, birth weight, weight at 24 and 48 months and CWG 0–24 months were inversely associated with glucose and IFG/DM. Birth weight was unrelated to IR-HOMA, whereas greater CWG at 0–24 and 24–48 months and 48 months–adulthood predicted higher IR-HOMA (all P < 0.001). After adjusting for adult waist circumference, birth weight was inversely related to IR-HOMA.

Conclusions: Lower birth weight and accelerated weight gain after 48 months are risk factors for adult glucose intolerance. Accelerated weight gain between 0 and 24 months did not predict glucose intolerance but did predict higher insulin resistance.

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Published date: January 2012
Organisations: Faculty of Health Sciences


Local EPrints ID: 339328
ISSN: 1935-5548
PURE UUID: 769f05c6-426b-4491-ba73-1d66e4c958f3
ORCID for Clive Osmond: ORCID iD

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Date deposited: 28 May 2012 15:22
Last modified: 18 Jul 2017 05:53

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Author: Shane A. Norris
Author: Clive Osmond ORCID iD
Author: Denise Gigante
Author: Christopher W. Kuzawa
Author: Lakshmy Ramakrishnan
Author: Nanette R. Lee
Author: Manual Ramirez-Zea
Author: Linda M. Richter
Author: Aryeh D. Stein
Author: Nikhil Tandon

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