Vlachantoni, Athina and Falkingham, Jane
Gender and old-age pension protection in Asia
Social Protection for Older Persons: Social Pensions in Asia.
Asian Development Bank
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The gender implications of the design and implementation of old age pension protection systems arise because few systems take women’s increasingly diverse life courses into account. This paper looks at demographic and socio-economic patterns in Asia—and their changes—such as population aging, inter-generational support and living arrangements, and women’s participation in the informal labor market. It discusses the strengths and weaknesses of contributory and non-contributory systems. It concludes that, although social pensions can contribute significantly to lifting many women in low-income countries out of poverty, protection systems need to consider much more the diversity in women’s life courses and working lives
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