Teyhen, D., Childs, J., Stokes, M., Wright, A., Dugan, J. and George, S.
Abdominal and lumbar multifidus muscle size and symmetry at rest and during contracted states: normative reference ranges
Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, 31, (7), . (doi:10.7863/jum.2012.31.7.1099). (PMID:22733859).
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Objectives: The purpose of this study was to establish reference values for abdominal and lumbar multifidus muscles at rest and while contracted in a sample of active healthy adults.
Methods: Three hundred forty participants (mean age ± SD, 21.8 ± 3.9 years; 96 females and 244 males) completed the study. Ultrasound imaging was used to assess the thickness of the transversus abdominis, internal and external oblique, rectus abdominis, and lumbar multifidus muscles. Additionally, the cross-sectional area of the rectus abdominis was assessed.
Results: Although males had significantly thicker muscles than females (P < .05), the relative change in thickness during specified tasks was equivalent. Overall, relative muscle thickness and symmetry were similar to previous studies using smaller sample sizes.
Conclusions: These findings provide a robust data set of muscle thickness values measured by ultrasound imaging and can be used for comparison to those with pain, abnormal function, and pathologic conditions.
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