Gkritzalis-Papadopoulos, A., Palmer, M.R. and Mowlem, M.C.
Adaptation of an osmotically pumped continuous in situ water sampler for application in riverine environments
Environmental Science and Technology Library, 46, (13), . (doi:10.1021/es300226y).
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We present the design of an osmotic water sampler that is adapted to and validated in freshwater. The sample is drawn into and stored in a continuous narrow bore tube. This geometry and slow pump rate (which is temperature dependent: 0.8 mL/d at 4 °C to 2.0 mL/d at 28 °C) minimizes sample dispersion. We have implemented in situ time-stamping which enables accurate study of pump rates and sample time defining procedures in field deployments and comparison with laboratory measurements. Temperature variations are common in rivers, and without an accurate time-stamping, or other defining procedure, time of sampling is ambiguous. The sampler was deployed for one month in a river, and its performance was evaluated by comparison with manually collected samples. Samples were analyzed for major ions using Ion Chromatography and collision reaction Inductively Couple Mass Spectrometry. Despite the differences of the two sampling methods (osmotic sampler averages, while manual samples provide snapshots), the two data sets show good agreement (average R2 ? 0.7), indicating the reliability of the sampler and at the same time highlighting the advantages of high frequency sampling in dynamic environments.
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