Prior, Stephen D. and White, Anthony S.
Measurements and simulation of a pneumatic muscle actuator for a rehabilitation robot
Simulation Practice and Theory, 3, (2), . (doi:10.1016/0928-4869(95)00010-Q).
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The performance of a pneumatic muscle actuator, invented by Jim Hennequin and used in a prototype wheelchair-mounted robot arm designed by the first author is reported. Experimental measurements were made of the output torque versus rotary motion and internal pressure. The torque available for a muscle of size 60 mm width by 90 mm length ranges from 1 to 15 Nm. The rotary stiffness of this muscle is 0.081 Nm/deg. A theory based on thermodynamic principles indicates that the efficiency of the pneumatic muscle actuator reaches a maximum of 67%. A simulation model of the dynamic behaviour of the muscle attached to the robot arm using one-dimensional flow theory was written in ACSL (Advanced Continuous Simulation Language). The resultant simulation gives good agreement to within ± 5% of the experimental values
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