Wright, Jim A., Cronin, Aidan, Okotto-Okotto, Joseph, Yang, Hong, Pedley, Steve and Gundry, Stephen W.
A spatial analysis of pit latrine density and groundwater source contamination
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment (doi:10.1007/s10661-012-2866-8).
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This study aims to assess the relationship between chemical and microbial contamination of groundwater sources and a range of potential hazards in two peri-urban areas of Kisumu, Kenya where shallow wells and pit latrines are widely used. From 1998-2004, 263 samples were taken from 61 groundwater sources and tested for thermotolerant coliforms. 18 of these sources were also tested for chemical contaminants, including nitrate, chloride and fluoride. The locations of all water sources, buildings, and pit latrines in the study area were surveyed. Local pit latrine densities were calculated using a Geographic Information System (GIS). 10 out 18 samples were above World Health Organization guideline values for nitrate, 236 out of 263 were positive for thermotolerant coliforms, and all were above guideline values for fluoride. There was no relationship between thermotolerant coliform levels and daily rainfall patterns, nor with sanitary risk inspection scores for samples from shallow wells (r=0.01, p=0.91, n=191). The density of pit latrines within a 100 metre radius was significantly correlated with nitrate and chloride levels (r=0.64, p=0.004 and r=0.46, p=0.05 respectively) but not with TTC (r=0.22, p=0.11). These results illustrate both the public health risks associated with shallow groundwater sources, onsite sanitation, and high population density. These findings have implications for current policies that promote latrine construction, especially in peri-urban areas of high population density. More comprehensive studies of larger communities should be commissioned to extend this analysis of the links between latrine density and groundwater contamination and so identify the contingent policy risks.
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