The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

Electro-optic coefficient enhancement in poled LiNbO3 waveguides

Electro-optic coefficient enhancement in poled LiNbO3 waveguides
Electro-optic coefficient enhancement in poled LiNbO3 waveguides
Lithium niobate crystals (LN) show a significant electro-optic (EO) response which contributes to the fabrication of low-voltage operation, high speed integrated optical modulators routinely used in optical telecommunication and integrated optics [1]. A UV laser direct writing method for the fabrication of optical channel waveguides has been proposed and characterized recently [2-4]. Here we report on the enhancement of the electro-optic response of these UV laser-written LN waveguides as a result of a post-poling process. More specifically we have observed a 26% increase of the r33 coefficient compared to the bulk in LN waveguides, fabricated by direct UV writing, that have been subjected to poling inhibition [5]. Poling inhibition produces inverted ferroelectric domains which are only a few microns deep. These domains are formed exactly in the same place as the UV written tracks which are responsible for the waveguide formation, and they overlap significantly with the propagating waveguide mode as is illustrated schematically in Fig. 1. Due to the polarization-selective transmission in the UV-written waveguides only the r33 coefficient could be investigated. Fig. 1 Schematic of the cross section of a) a UV-written waveguide on a single domain substrate, and b) the tail-to-tail domain arrangement overlapping with the waveguide after poling-inhibition.
Optical channel waveguides were fabricated by direct UV laser focused writing on the +z face of a z-cut undoped congruent LN substrate [4]. The sample was subsequently subjected to electric field poling using an externally applied electric field (~19.5 kV/mm) which resulted in local poling-inhibited domains of limited depth that overlap with the waveguides as shown in Fig. 1b [5,6].
The electro-optic response was evaluated interferometrically by placing the waveguides in one branch of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer [3]. A set of titanium in-diffused waveguides was used as a control sample to provide the background measurement of the bulk for the r33 coefficient. The measured values of the electro-optic coefficient (r33) in the poling-inhibited samples proved to be systematically higher than the value obtained with the control sample of unpoled titanium in-diffused waveguides which was 35 pm/V. The highest value of the r33 coefficient that was measured in the poling-inhibited waveguides was 44.2 pm/V, which corresponds to an enhancement of 26% as compared to the reference Ti indiffused waveguide sample. The observed enhancement in the value of the EO coefficient is attributed to the strain which is associated with the presence of a tail-to-tail domain boundary that surrounds the optical waveguide channel as illustrated in Fig. 1b. The enhancement of the EO coefficient varied for waveguides which were fabricated under different UV irradiation conditions. The irradiation conditions affect both the waveguide mode confinement and the depth of the poling-inhibited domains. This suggests that the enhancement can be further optimized and even applied to other waveguide systems such as titanium in-diffused and proton exchanged channel guides.
Ying, C.Y.J.
dc655370-fd93-4a5c-a573-85658ae4f5fa
Zisis, G.
45a0bf08-5ab7-4d9b-9ad9-65ca7bf739a9
Naylor, A.R.
d1c76793-b8df-4f11-98d6-d3ac4f5314b7
Ganguly, P.
f48cd068-1f8c-44dc-bbbc-402c783898ea
Sones, C.L.
9de9d8ee-d394-46a5-80b7-e341c0eed0a8
Soergel, E.
f4d5aad1-9f81-4877-bceb-33ceed99d9d7
Eason, R.W.
e38684c3-d18c-41b9-a4aa-def67283b020
Mailis, S.
233e0768-3f8d-430e-8fdf-92e6f4f6a0c4
Ying, C.Y.J.
dc655370-fd93-4a5c-a573-85658ae4f5fa
Zisis, G.
45a0bf08-5ab7-4d9b-9ad9-65ca7bf739a9
Naylor, A.R.
d1c76793-b8df-4f11-98d6-d3ac4f5314b7
Ganguly, P.
f48cd068-1f8c-44dc-bbbc-402c783898ea
Sones, C.L.
9de9d8ee-d394-46a5-80b7-e341c0eed0a8
Soergel, E.
f4d5aad1-9f81-4877-bceb-33ceed99d9d7
Eason, R.W.
e38684c3-d18c-41b9-a4aa-def67283b020
Mailis, S.
233e0768-3f8d-430e-8fdf-92e6f4f6a0c4

Ying, C.Y.J., Zisis, G., Naylor, A.R., Ganguly, P., Sones, C.L., Soergel, E., Eason, R.W. and Mailis, S. (2011) Electro-optic coefficient enhancement in poled LiNbO3 waveguides. CLEO/EQEC 2011: Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics - European Quantum Electronics Conference, Germany. 22 - 26 May 2011.

Record type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)

Abstract

Lithium niobate crystals (LN) show a significant electro-optic (EO) response which contributes to the fabrication of low-voltage operation, high speed integrated optical modulators routinely used in optical telecommunication and integrated optics [1]. A UV laser direct writing method for the fabrication of optical channel waveguides has been proposed and characterized recently [2-4]. Here we report on the enhancement of the electro-optic response of these UV laser-written LN waveguides as a result of a post-poling process. More specifically we have observed a 26% increase of the r33 coefficient compared to the bulk in LN waveguides, fabricated by direct UV writing, that have been subjected to poling inhibition [5]. Poling inhibition produces inverted ferroelectric domains which are only a few microns deep. These domains are formed exactly in the same place as the UV written tracks which are responsible for the waveguide formation, and they overlap significantly with the propagating waveguide mode as is illustrated schematically in Fig. 1. Due to the polarization-selective transmission in the UV-written waveguides only the r33 coefficient could be investigated. Fig. 1 Schematic of the cross section of a) a UV-written waveguide on a single domain substrate, and b) the tail-to-tail domain arrangement overlapping with the waveguide after poling-inhibition.
Optical channel waveguides were fabricated by direct UV laser focused writing on the +z face of a z-cut undoped congruent LN substrate [4]. The sample was subsequently subjected to electric field poling using an externally applied electric field (~19.5 kV/mm) which resulted in local poling-inhibited domains of limited depth that overlap with the waveguides as shown in Fig. 1b [5,6].
The electro-optic response was evaluated interferometrically by placing the waveguides in one branch of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer [3]. A set of titanium in-diffused waveguides was used as a control sample to provide the background measurement of the bulk for the r33 coefficient. The measured values of the electro-optic coefficient (r33) in the poling-inhibited samples proved to be systematically higher than the value obtained with the control sample of unpoled titanium in-diffused waveguides which was 35 pm/V. The highest value of the r33 coefficient that was measured in the poling-inhibited waveguides was 44.2 pm/V, which corresponds to an enhancement of 26% as compared to the reference Ti indiffused waveguide sample. The observed enhancement in the value of the EO coefficient is attributed to the strain which is associated with the presence of a tail-to-tail domain boundary that surrounds the optical waveguide channel as illustrated in Fig. 1b. The enhancement of the EO coefficient varied for waveguides which were fabricated under different UV irradiation conditions. The irradiation conditions affect both the waveguide mode confinement and the depth of the poling-inhibited domains. This suggests that the enhancement can be further optimized and even applied to other waveguide systems such as titanium in-diffused and proton exchanged channel guides.

Text
4984.pdf - Other
Download (36kB)

More information

e-pub ahead of print date: 2011
Venue - Dates: CLEO/EQEC 2011: Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics - European Quantum Electronics Conference, Germany, 2011-05-22 - 2011-05-26
Organisations: Optoelectronics Research Centre

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 342994
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/342994
PURE UUID: 70a886c9-e148-431e-8d38-f2b3923faaa1
ORCID for R.W. Eason: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-9704-2204
ORCID for S. Mailis: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-8100-2670

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 20 Sep 2012 09:14
Last modified: 19 Jul 2019 01:21

Export record

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton: eprints@soton.ac.uk

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/cgi/oai2

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.

×