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Mapping the environmental coverage of the INDEPTH demographic surveillance system network in rural Africa

Mapping the environmental coverage of the INDEPTH demographic surveillance system network in rural Africa
Mapping the environmental coverage of the INDEPTH demographic surveillance system network in rural Africa
OBJECTIVES: The INDEPTH DSS network was founded in 1998 to provide an international network of field sites for continuous demographic evaluation of populations and their health. Results from the network have been used to derive estimates of mortality, morbidity and health equity. Spatial extrapolation and logical summaries of these findings are dependent on the network covering a representative sample of the environments in a region and their interrelationships being known. Here, we investigate how comprehensive is the coverage of the network of rural DSS sites in Africa in terms of the range of ecological zones found across the continent. METHODS: We used satellite imagery to define an environmental signature for each INDEPTH DSS site, and then calculate Euclidean distances from these signatures to the environmental signatures of every image pixel across Africa. These distances were then mapped and a gridded population surface used to mask uninhabited areas to illustrate the extent of the environmental coverage of the INDEPTH network. Environmental similarities between DSS sites were also calculated, hierarchically clustered and visualized as a dendrogram to examine between site relationships. Finally, an ecozonation of Africa was used to analyse the per-ecozone environmental similarity of the INDEPTH DSS network. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The current INDEPTH DSS network in Africa spans all the major environmental zones, but within these zones the environmental coverage of the network varies. These variations were mapped by ecozone. These maps provide valuable information in determining the confidence with which relationships derived from rural INDEPTH DSS sites can be extended to other areas. The results also indicate suites of sites that form environmentally cohesive groups and from which data can be logically summarized. Finally, the results highlight areas where the location of new INDEPTH DSS sites would increase significantly the environmental coverage of the network.
Africa, climate, delivery of health care, *demography, environment, *health status Indicators, humans, plants, population surveillance/*methods, *rural health
1360-2276
1318-1326
Tatem, A.J.
6c6de104-a5f9-46e0-bb93-a1a7c980513e
Snow, R.W.
1df934dd-70f4-4bf1-8a98-7feb0207d796
Hay, S.I.
18d621e0-2813-4c05-b2b7-09df3f24aca7
Tatem, A.J.
6c6de104-a5f9-46e0-bb93-a1a7c980513e
Snow, R.W.
1df934dd-70f4-4bf1-8a98-7feb0207d796
Hay, S.I.
18d621e0-2813-4c05-b2b7-09df3f24aca7

Tatem, A.J., Snow, R.W. and Hay, S.I. (2006) Mapping the environmental coverage of the INDEPTH demographic surveillance system network in rural Africa. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 11 (8), 1318-1326. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2006.01681.x/abstract). (PMID:16903894)

Record type: Article

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The INDEPTH DSS network was founded in 1998 to provide an international network of field sites for continuous demographic evaluation of populations and their health. Results from the network have been used to derive estimates of mortality, morbidity and health equity. Spatial extrapolation and logical summaries of these findings are dependent on the network covering a representative sample of the environments in a region and their interrelationships being known. Here, we investigate how comprehensive is the coverage of the network of rural DSS sites in Africa in terms of the range of ecological zones found across the continent. METHODS: We used satellite imagery to define an environmental signature for each INDEPTH DSS site, and then calculate Euclidean distances from these signatures to the environmental signatures of every image pixel across Africa. These distances were then mapped and a gridded population surface used to mask uninhabited areas to illustrate the extent of the environmental coverage of the INDEPTH network. Environmental similarities between DSS sites were also calculated, hierarchically clustered and visualized as a dendrogram to examine between site relationships. Finally, an ecozonation of Africa was used to analyse the per-ecozone environmental similarity of the INDEPTH DSS network. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The current INDEPTH DSS network in Africa spans all the major environmental zones, but within these zones the environmental coverage of the network varies. These variations were mapped by ecozone. These maps provide valuable information in determining the confidence with which relationships derived from rural INDEPTH DSS sites can be extended to other areas. The results also indicate suites of sites that form environmentally cohesive groups and from which data can be logically summarized. Finally, the results highlight areas where the location of new INDEPTH DSS sites would increase significantly the environmental coverage of the network.

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More information

Published date: August 2006
Keywords: Africa, climate, delivery of health care, *demography, environment, *health status Indicators, humans, plants, population surveillance/*methods, *rural health
Organisations: PHEW – P (Population Health), Population, Health & Wellbeing (PHeW)

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 344484
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/344484
ISSN: 1360-2276
PURE UUID: 8a326f10-70d4-4b5d-9941-2f187c4ada43
ORCID for A.J. Tatem: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-7270-941X

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Date deposited: 25 Oct 2012 08:38
Last modified: 20 Jul 2019 00:41

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Author: A.J. Tatem ORCID iD
Author: R.W. Snow
Author: S.I. Hay

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