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Human and environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals: differences, similarities, lessons from toxicology

Human and environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals: differences, similarities, lessons from toxicology
Human and environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals: differences, similarities, lessons from toxicology
The presence of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in the environment has caused increasing concern due their effects on ecological receptors. Improving the risk assessment of these compounds necessitates a quantitative understanding of their metabolism and elimination in the target organism (toxicokinetics), particularly via the ubiquitous cytochrome P-450 (CYP) system and their mechanisms of toxicity (toxicodynamics). This review focuses on a number of pharmaceuticals and veterinary medicines of environmental concern, and the differences and similarities between ecological and human risk assessment. CYP metabolism is discussed with particular reference to its ubiquity in species of ecological relevance. The important issue of pharmaceutical mixtures is discussed to assess how emerging technologies such as ecotoxicogenomics may assist in moving towards a more mechanism-based environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals.
ecological risk assessment, human risk assessment, cytochrome P-450, toxicokinetics, toxicodynamics, uncertainty factors, ecotoxicogenomics
1618-2642
1259-1268
Dorne, J. L. C. M.
297e53ee-e67e-4cec-a182-5edd7251ecec
Skinner, L.
d488ba2d-40d7-43e9-9bf2-8d798454f76f
Frampton, Geoff
26c6163c-3428-45b8-b8b9-92091ff6c69f
Spurgeon, D. J.
ab502659-e4bf-4519-bf3e-a3aac6ff513c
Ragas, A. M. J.
a94bcaab-5671-45eb-b3b2-8e9bca19e68f
Dorne, J. L. C. M.
297e53ee-e67e-4cec-a182-5edd7251ecec
Skinner, L.
d488ba2d-40d7-43e9-9bf2-8d798454f76f
Frampton, Geoff
26c6163c-3428-45b8-b8b9-92091ff6c69f
Spurgeon, D. J.
ab502659-e4bf-4519-bf3e-a3aac6ff513c
Ragas, A. M. J.
a94bcaab-5671-45eb-b3b2-8e9bca19e68f

Dorne, J. L. C. M., Skinner, L., Frampton, Geoff, Spurgeon, D. J. and Ragas, A. M. J. (2007) Human and environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals: differences, similarities, lessons from toxicology. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 387 (4), 1259-1268. (doi:10.1007/s00216-006-0963-7). (PMID:17186225)

Record type: Article

Abstract

The presence of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in the environment has caused increasing concern due their effects on ecological receptors. Improving the risk assessment of these compounds necessitates a quantitative understanding of their metabolism and elimination in the target organism (toxicokinetics), particularly via the ubiquitous cytochrome P-450 (CYP) system and their mechanisms of toxicity (toxicodynamics). This review focuses on a number of pharmaceuticals and veterinary medicines of environmental concern, and the differences and similarities between ecological and human risk assessment. CYP metabolism is discussed with particular reference to its ubiquity in species of ecological relevance. The important issue of pharmaceutical mixtures is discussed to assess how emerging technologies such as ecotoxicogenomics may assist in moving towards a more mechanism-based environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals.

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More information

e-pub ahead of print date: 22 December 2006
Published date: February 2007
Keywords: ecological risk assessment, human risk assessment, cytochrome P-450, toxicokinetics, toxicodynamics, uncertainty factors, ecotoxicogenomics
Organisations: Faculty of Medicine

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 345704
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/345704
ISSN: 1618-2642
PURE UUID: 8d9d02bf-14aa-43e7-b43c-99a466219852
ORCID for Geoff Frampton: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-2005-0497

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 29 Nov 2012 12:54
Last modified: 18 Feb 2021 16:41

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Contributors

Author: J. L. C. M. Dorne
Author: L. Skinner
Author: Geoff Frampton ORCID iD
Author: D. J. Spurgeon
Author: A. M. J. Ragas

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