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Water safety and inequality in access to drinking-water between rich and poor households

Water safety and inequality in access to drinking-water between rich and poor households
Water safety and inequality in access to drinking-water between rich and poor households
While water and sanitation are now recognized as a human right by the United Nations, monitoring inequality in safe water access poses challenges. This study uses survey data to calculate household socio-economic-status (SES) indices in seven countries where national drinking-water quality surveys are available. These are used to assess inequalities in access as indicated by type of improved water source, use of safe water and a combination of these . In Bangladesh, arsenic exposure through drinking-water is not significantly related to SES (p=0.06) among households using tubewells, whereas in Peru, chlorine residual in piped systems varies significantly with SES (p<0.0001). In Ethiopia, Nicaragua and Nigeria, many poor households access non-piped improved sources, which may provide unsafe water, resulting in greater inequality of access to ‘safe’ water compared to ‘improved’ water sources. Concentration indices increased from 0.08 to 0.15, 0.10 to 0.14, and 0.24 to 0.26 respectively in these countries. There was minimal difference in Jordan and Tajikistan. Although the results are likely to be underestimates as they exclude individual-level inequalities, they show that use of a binary ‘improved’ / ‘unimproved’ categorization masks substantial inequalities. Future international monitoring programmes should take account inequality in access and safety
1382-3124
1222-1230
Yang, Hong
2ea2c94c-8d28-4555-98f9-59b615b0cee7
Bain, Rob E. S.
62fc8298-c3d2-47ef-bf26-32291edf5ecd
Bartram, Jamie
38ea4df5-7864-46cd-8d01-ad1810cccba6
Gundry, Stephen
7146591d-c1c8-4160-96a6-26d5ce136ab6
Pedley, Steve
4ad4d2f3-3e70-4f82-8b3b-c2d2f2b5df5a
Wright, James A.
94990ecf-f8dd-4649-84f2-b28bf272e464
Yang, Hong
2ea2c94c-8d28-4555-98f9-59b615b0cee7
Bain, Rob E. S.
62fc8298-c3d2-47ef-bf26-32291edf5ecd
Bartram, Jamie
38ea4df5-7864-46cd-8d01-ad1810cccba6
Gundry, Stephen
7146591d-c1c8-4160-96a6-26d5ce136ab6
Pedley, Steve
4ad4d2f3-3e70-4f82-8b3b-c2d2f2b5df5a
Wright, James A.
94990ecf-f8dd-4649-84f2-b28bf272e464

Yang, Hong, Bain, Rob E. S., Bartram, Jamie, Gundry, Stephen, Pedley, Steve and Wright, James A. (2013) Water safety and inequality in access to drinking-water between rich and poor households. Environmental Science and Technology Library, 47 (3), 1222-1230. (doi:10.1021/es303345p).

Record type: Article

Abstract

While water and sanitation are now recognized as a human right by the United Nations, monitoring inequality in safe water access poses challenges. This study uses survey data to calculate household socio-economic-status (SES) indices in seven countries where national drinking-water quality surveys are available. These are used to assess inequalities in access as indicated by type of improved water source, use of safe water and a combination of these . In Bangladesh, arsenic exposure through drinking-water is not significantly related to SES (p=0.06) among households using tubewells, whereas in Peru, chlorine residual in piped systems varies significantly with SES (p<0.0001). In Ethiopia, Nicaragua and Nigeria, many poor households access non-piped improved sources, which may provide unsafe water, resulting in greater inequality of access to ‘safe’ water compared to ‘improved’ water sources. Concentration indices increased from 0.08 to 0.15, 0.10 to 0.14, and 0.24 to 0.26 respectively in these countries. There was minimal difference in Jordan and Tajikistan. Although the results are likely to be underestimates as they exclude individual-level inequalities, they show that use of a binary ‘improved’ / ‘unimproved’ categorization masks substantial inequalities. Future international monitoring programmes should take account inequality in access and safety

Full text not available from this repository.

More information

Published date: 5 February 2013
Organisations: Geography & Environment, PHEW – P (Population Health)

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 346582
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/346582
ISSN: 1382-3124
PURE UUID: c94d5048-5647-4ab9-bc56-e4296ee3e605
ORCID for James A. Wright: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-8842-2181

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 03 Jan 2013 09:28
Last modified: 20 Jul 2019 00:57

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