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Global analysis of night marine air temperature and its uncertainty since 1880: the HadNMAT2 Dataset

Global analysis of night marine air temperature and its uncertainty since 1880: the HadNMAT2 Dataset
Global analysis of night marine air temperature and its uncertainty since 1880: the HadNMAT2 Dataset
An updated version of the Met Office Hadley Centre’s monthly night marine air temperature dataset is presented. It is available on a 5? latitude-longitude grid from 1880 as anomalies relative to 1961-1990 calendar-monthly climatological average night marine air temperature (NMAT). Adjustments are made for changes in observation height; these depend on estimates of the stability of the near surface atmospheric boundary layer. In previous versions of the dataset, ad hoc adjustments were also made for three periods and regions where poor observational practice was prevalent. These adjustments are re-examined. Estimates of uncertainty are calculated for every grid box and result from: measurement errors; uncertainty in adjustments applied to the observations; uncertainty in the measurement height and under-sampling. The new dataset is a clear improvement over previous versions in terms of coverage because of the recent digitization of historical observations from ships' logbooks. However, the periods prior to about 1890 and around World War 2 remain particularly uncertain and sampling is still sparse in some regions in other periods. A further improvement is the availability of uncertainty estimates for every grid box and every month. Previous versions required adjustments that were dependent on contemporary measurements of sea surface temperature (SST); to avoid these, the new dataset starts in 1880 rather than 1856. Overall agreement with variations of SST is better for the updated dataset than for previous versions, maintaining existing estimates of global warming and increasing confidence in the global record of temperature variability and change.
0148-0227
1281-1298
Kent, E.C.
ea23f6f0-ccf6-4702-a5c9-184e9c5d4427
Rayner, N.A.
d1713fb5-9fea-4b57-8db2-add91257a587
Berry, D.I.
55ffc590-f459-49c8-aecf-842d65aeb0fb
Saunby, M.
29fc0bd5-0f31-4cbb-b346-b4c1cb744a01
Moat, B.I.
497dbb18-a98f-466b-b459-aa2c872ad2dc
Kennedy, J.J.
d4df32e6-316d-48e6-8243-837713926ec9
Parker, D.E.
1d28b27b-83a0-4b02-85e6-a66887c70f3a
Kent, E.C.
ea23f6f0-ccf6-4702-a5c9-184e9c5d4427
Rayner, N.A.
d1713fb5-9fea-4b57-8db2-add91257a587
Berry, D.I.
55ffc590-f459-49c8-aecf-842d65aeb0fb
Saunby, M.
29fc0bd5-0f31-4cbb-b346-b4c1cb744a01
Moat, B.I.
497dbb18-a98f-466b-b459-aa2c872ad2dc
Kennedy, J.J.
d4df32e6-316d-48e6-8243-837713926ec9
Parker, D.E.
1d28b27b-83a0-4b02-85e6-a66887c70f3a

Kent, E.C., Rayner, N.A., Berry, D.I., Saunby, M., Moat, B.I., Kennedy, J.J. and Parker, D.E. (2013) Global analysis of night marine air temperature and its uncertainty since 1880: the HadNMAT2 Dataset Journal of Geophysical Research, 118, (3), pp. 1281-1298. (doi:10.1002/jgrd.50152).

Record type: Article

Abstract

An updated version of the Met Office Hadley Centre’s monthly night marine air temperature dataset is presented. It is available on a 5? latitude-longitude grid from 1880 as anomalies relative to 1961-1990 calendar-monthly climatological average night marine air temperature (NMAT). Adjustments are made for changes in observation height; these depend on estimates of the stability of the near surface atmospheric boundary layer. In previous versions of the dataset, ad hoc adjustments were also made for three periods and regions where poor observational practice was prevalent. These adjustments are re-examined. Estimates of uncertainty are calculated for every grid box and result from: measurement errors; uncertainty in adjustments applied to the observations; uncertainty in the measurement height and under-sampling. The new dataset is a clear improvement over previous versions in terms of coverage because of the recent digitization of historical observations from ships' logbooks. However, the periods prior to about 1890 and around World War 2 remain particularly uncertain and sampling is still sparse in some regions in other periods. A further improvement is the availability of uncertainty estimates for every grid box and every month. Previous versions required adjustments that were dependent on contemporary measurements of sea surface temperature (SST); to avoid these, the new dataset starts in 1880 rather than 1856. Overall agreement with variations of SST is better for the updated dataset than for previous versions, maintaining existing estimates of global warming and increasing confidence in the global record of temperature variability and change.

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Submitted date: 31 July 2012
Accepted/In Press date: 27 December 2012
Published date: 16 February 2013
Organisations: Marine Physics and Ocean Climate

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 346604
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/346604
ISSN: 0148-0227
PURE UUID: 26cb90a9-8e0e-4df3-9417-d810d510e051

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Date deposited: 04 Jan 2013 14:08
Last modified: 18 Jul 2017 05:03

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Contributors

Author: E.C. Kent
Author: N.A. Rayner
Author: D.I. Berry
Author: M. Saunby
Author: B.I. Moat
Author: J.J. Kennedy
Author: D.E. Parker

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