The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

Combining work and family life: the pension penalty of caring

Evandrou, Maria and Glaser, Karen (2003) Combining work and family life: the pension penalty of caring Ageing & Society, 23, (5), pp. 583-602. (doi:10.1017/S0144686X03001314).

Record type: Article


This paper uses work and caring history information from the British Family and Working Lives Survey (1994/5) to examine the provision of family care and its impact upon the employment and the subsequent state and private pension entitlement among mid-life men and women. Combining paid employment with care-giving was not an option for a significant minority of women with caring responsibilities in mid-life. One-in-five mid-life women who have ever had caring responsibilities reported that, upon starting caring, they stopped work altogether, and another one-in-five reported that they worked fewer hours, earned less money or could only work restricted hours. Fewer men and women who stopped work as a result of caring were members of an occupational pension scheme than other groups; and they had accumulated fewer years of contributions than their counterparts who continued working, with direct implications for their level of pension income in later life. The extension of employers' schemes to help workers balance paid work and family responsibilities would facilitate more carers remaining in the labour market, as would an explicit carers' dimension within the new ‘Working Tax Credit’. Consideration should also be given to extending credits for second tier pensions to working carers who provide care for over 16 hours a week and who earn below the lower earnings limit. This will ensure that carers who juggle low paid work and care are not penalised for working, and that their unpaid contribution to society is recognised.

Full text not available from this repository.

More information

Published date: September 2003
Keywords: caring, pensions, work-life balance
Organisations: Social Sciences


Local EPrints ID: 34807
ISSN: 0144-686X
PURE UUID: f036147a-8877-4850-bacd-79fccc29c452

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 17 May 2006
Last modified: 17 Jul 2017 15:49

Export record



Author: Maria Evandrou
Author: Karen Glaser

University divisions

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton:

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.