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Stroke is predicted by low visuospatial in relation to other intellectual abilities and coronary heart disease by low general intelligence

Stroke is predicted by low visuospatial in relation to other intellectual abilities and coronary heart disease by low general intelligence
Stroke is predicted by low visuospatial in relation to other intellectual abilities and coronary heart disease by low general intelligence
BACKGROUND: Low intellectual ability is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Most studies have used a general intelligence score. We studied whether three different subscores of intellectual ability predict these disorders.

METHODS: We studied 2,786 men, born between 1934 and 1944 in Helsinki, Finland, who as conscripts at age 20 underwent an intellectual ability test comprising verbal, visuospatial (analogous to Raven's progressive matrices) and arithmetic reasoning subtests. We ascertained the later occurrence of coronary heart disease and stroke from validated national hospital discharge and death registers.

RESULTS: 281 men (10.1%) had experienced a coronary heart disease event and 131 (4.7%) a stroke event. Coronary heart disease was predicted by low scores in all subtests, hazard ratios for each standard deviation (SD) lower score ranging from 1.21 to 1.30 (confidence intervals 1.08 to 1.46). Stroke was predicted by a low visuospatial reasoning score, the corresponding hazard ratio being 1.23 (95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.46), adjusted for year and age at testing. Adjusted in addition for the two other scores, the hazard ratio was 1.40 (1.10 to 1.79). This hazard ratio was little affected by adjustment for socioeconomic status in childhood and adult life, whereas the same adjustments attenuated the associations between intellectual ability and coronary heart disease. The associations with stroke were also unchanged when adjusted for systolic blood pressure at 20 years and reimbursement for adult antihypertensive medication.

CONCLUSIONS: Stroke is predicted by low visuospatial reasoning scores in relation to scores in the two other subtests. This association may be mediated by common underlying causes such as impaired brain development, rather than by mechanisms associated with risk factors shared by stroke and coronary heart disease, such as socio-economic status, hypertension and atherosclerosis.
1932-6203
e46841-[7pp]
Kajantie, E.
d4e32f85-9988-4b83-b353-012210ea0151
Raikkonen, K.
926aba17-06cd-417b-b20f-ae400a2596a6
Henriksson, M.
9c160f53-e395-4bf8-8676-729905921bf4
Leskinen, J.T.
4045e928-1bea-40d6-a1b8-adfa507a0a8f
Forsen, T.
009ce53c-8bbf-4c5c-a21f-0bbdd1f999c4
Heinonen, K.
667793ce-59c1-43d0-9f53-4f7790a9ed94
Pesonen, A.K.
edd22dbe-e07d-4212-a476-aaff63f619f5
Osmond, C.
1c0618dd-a0ee-49fd-9306-050ec2982880
Barker, D.J.
cabc3433-b628-43e5-9fd7-e6ff5769bf44
Eriksson, J.G.
eda300d2-b247-479f-95b9-f12d2c72e92b
Kajantie, E.
d4e32f85-9988-4b83-b353-012210ea0151
Raikkonen, K.
926aba17-06cd-417b-b20f-ae400a2596a6
Henriksson, M.
9c160f53-e395-4bf8-8676-729905921bf4
Leskinen, J.T.
4045e928-1bea-40d6-a1b8-adfa507a0a8f
Forsen, T.
009ce53c-8bbf-4c5c-a21f-0bbdd1f999c4
Heinonen, K.
667793ce-59c1-43d0-9f53-4f7790a9ed94
Pesonen, A.K.
edd22dbe-e07d-4212-a476-aaff63f619f5
Osmond, C.
1c0618dd-a0ee-49fd-9306-050ec2982880
Barker, D.J.
cabc3433-b628-43e5-9fd7-e6ff5769bf44
Eriksson, J.G.
eda300d2-b247-479f-95b9-f12d2c72e92b

Kajantie, E., Raikkonen, K., Henriksson, M., Leskinen, J.T., Forsen, T., Heinonen, K., Pesonen, A.K., Osmond, C., Barker, D.J. and Eriksson, J.G. (2012) Stroke is predicted by low visuospatial in relation to other intellectual abilities and coronary heart disease by low general intelligence. PLoS ONE, 7 (11), e46841-[7pp]. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046841). (PMID:23144789)

Record type: Article

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Low intellectual ability is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Most studies have used a general intelligence score. We studied whether three different subscores of intellectual ability predict these disorders.

METHODS: We studied 2,786 men, born between 1934 and 1944 in Helsinki, Finland, who as conscripts at age 20 underwent an intellectual ability test comprising verbal, visuospatial (analogous to Raven's progressive matrices) and arithmetic reasoning subtests. We ascertained the later occurrence of coronary heart disease and stroke from validated national hospital discharge and death registers.

RESULTS: 281 men (10.1%) had experienced a coronary heart disease event and 131 (4.7%) a stroke event. Coronary heart disease was predicted by low scores in all subtests, hazard ratios for each standard deviation (SD) lower score ranging from 1.21 to 1.30 (confidence intervals 1.08 to 1.46). Stroke was predicted by a low visuospatial reasoning score, the corresponding hazard ratio being 1.23 (95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.46), adjusted for year and age at testing. Adjusted in addition for the two other scores, the hazard ratio was 1.40 (1.10 to 1.79). This hazard ratio was little affected by adjustment for socioeconomic status in childhood and adult life, whereas the same adjustments attenuated the associations between intellectual ability and coronary heart disease. The associations with stroke were also unchanged when adjusted for systolic blood pressure at 20 years and reimbursement for adult antihypertensive medication.

CONCLUSIONS: Stroke is predicted by low visuospatial reasoning scores in relation to scores in the two other subtests. This association may be mediated by common underlying causes such as impaired brain development, rather than by mechanisms associated with risk factors shared by stroke and coronary heart disease, such as socio-economic status, hypertension and atherosclerosis.

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e-pub ahead of print date: 7 November 2012
Published date: 2012
Organisations: Faculty of Medicine

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Local EPrints ID: 348376
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/348376
ISSN: 1932-6203
PURE UUID: dad23ec4-087c-4f1c-889a-c38032b3eac2

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Date deposited: 13 Feb 2013 16:43
Last modified: 02 Dec 2019 20:53

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Contributors

Author: E. Kajantie
Author: K. Raikkonen
Author: M. Henriksson
Author: J.T. Leskinen
Author: T. Forsen
Author: K. Heinonen
Author: A.K. Pesonen
Author: C. Osmond
Author: D.J. Barker
Author: J.G. Eriksson

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