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The Snow Snorkel: a proof of concept study

The Snow Snorkel: a proof of concept study
The Snow Snorkel: a proof of concept study
Objective: to demonstrate that the Snow Snorkel can be used safely by healthy volunteers buried in snow for up to 1hour.

Methods: nine healthy male volunteers were placed in a shoulder-width trench and buried with snow to a depth of 30 to 40cm. The study was divided into 2 stages. The first stage (Stage 1) was performed with the Snow Snorkel in operation (60-minute duration) and was then followed by a second stage (Stage 2) (15-minute duration) when the device was removed. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), axillary temperature (T), and 3-lead electrocardiography (ECG) were monitored throughout the study.

Results: of the 9vol.nteers who were enrolled, 7 were able to complete Stage 1, while only 3 were able to complete Stage 2. In those who completed Stage 1, the mean HR fell by 14.1 beats/min (P=.002), while RR (P=.5) and SaO2 (P=.7) remained unchanged compared to baseline measurements. There were no changes in T or ECG.

Conclusions: simple systems such as the Snow Snorkel are effective during snow burial and warrant further investigation
1080-6032
61-65
Windsor, Jeremy S.
4656fa52-6c4e-4681-aad3-76ced2ce7152
Hamilton, Edwin
018783dd-1dd2-4cef-8931-75aa22c312e1
Grocott, Michael P..
1e87b741-513e-4a22-be13-0f7bb344e8c2
O'Dwyer, Michael J.
bdbeb7a4-b20e-442d-9241-e625e1d578e5
Milledge, James S.
b186574f-0849-47b4-8fed-b06dd94cefac
Windsor, Jeremy S.
4656fa52-6c4e-4681-aad3-76ced2ce7152
Hamilton, Edwin
018783dd-1dd2-4cef-8931-75aa22c312e1
Grocott, Michael P..
1e87b741-513e-4a22-be13-0f7bb344e8c2
O'Dwyer, Michael J.
bdbeb7a4-b20e-442d-9241-e625e1d578e5
Milledge, James S.
b186574f-0849-47b4-8fed-b06dd94cefac

Windsor, Jeremy S., Hamilton, Edwin, Grocott, Michael P.., O'Dwyer, Michael J. and Milledge, James S. (2009) The Snow Snorkel: a proof of concept study Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, 20, (1), pp. 61-65. (doi:10.1580/08-WEME-BR-183.1). (PMID:19364164).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Objective: to demonstrate that the Snow Snorkel can be used safely by healthy volunteers buried in snow for up to 1hour.

Methods: nine healthy male volunteers were placed in a shoulder-width trench and buried with snow to a depth of 30 to 40cm. The study was divided into 2 stages. The first stage (Stage 1) was performed with the Snow Snorkel in operation (60-minute duration) and was then followed by a second stage (Stage 2) (15-minute duration) when the device was removed. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), axillary temperature (T), and 3-lead electrocardiography (ECG) were monitored throughout the study.

Results: of the 9vol.nteers who were enrolled, 7 were able to complete Stage 1, while only 3 were able to complete Stage 2. In those who completed Stage 1, the mean HR fell by 14.1 beats/min (P=.002), while RR (P=.5) and SaO2 (P=.7) remained unchanged compared to baseline measurements. There were no changes in T or ECG.

Conclusions: simple systems such as the Snow Snorkel are effective during snow burial and warrant further investigation

Full text not available from this repository.

More information

Published date: 2009
Organisations: Human Development & Health

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 348929
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/348929
ISSN: 1080-6032
PURE UUID: 58674e16-480d-492a-a1b4-756ef080efc6

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Date deposited: 22 Feb 2013 11:32
Last modified: 18 Jul 2017 04:46

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Contributors

Author: Jeremy S. Windsor
Author: Edwin Hamilton
Author: Michael J. O'Dwyer
Author: James S. Milledge

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