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The Snow Snorkel: a proof of concept study

Record type: Article

Objective: to demonstrate that the Snow Snorkel can be used safely by healthy volunteers buried in snow for up to 1hour.

Methods: nine healthy male volunteers were placed in a shoulder-width trench and buried with snow to a depth of 30 to 40cm. The study was divided into 2 stages. The first stage (Stage 1) was performed with the Snow Snorkel in operation (60-minute duration) and was then followed by a second stage (Stage 2) (15-minute duration) when the device was removed. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), axillary temperature (T), and 3-lead electrocardiography (ECG) were monitored throughout the study.

Results: of the 9vol.nteers who were enrolled, 7 were able to complete Stage 1, while only 3 were able to complete Stage 2. In those who completed Stage 1, the mean HR fell by 14.1 beats/min (P=.002), while RR (P=.5) and SaO2 (P=.7) remained unchanged compared to baseline measurements. There were no changes in T or ECG.

Conclusions: simple systems such as the Snow Snorkel are effective during snow burial and warrant further investigation

Full text not available from this repository.


Windsor, Jeremy S., Hamilton, Edwin, Grocott, Michael P.., O'Dwyer, Michael J. and Milledge, James S. (2009) The Snow Snorkel: a proof of concept study Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, 20, (1), pp. 61-65. (doi:10.1580/08-WEME-BR-183.1). (PMID:19364164).

More information

Published date: 2009
Organisations: Human Development & Health


Local EPrints ID: 348929
ISSN: 1080-6032
PURE UUID: 58674e16-480d-492a-a1b4-756ef080efc6

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 22 Feb 2013 11:32
Last modified: 18 Jul 2017 04:46

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Author: Jeremy S. Windsor
Author: Edwin Hamilton
Author: Michael J. O'Dwyer
Author: James S. Milledge

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