The Snow Snorkel: a proof of concept study
Windsor, Jeremy S., Hamilton, Edwin, Grocott, Michael P.., O'Dwyer, Michael J. and Milledge, James S. (2009) The Snow Snorkel: a proof of concept study Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, 20, (1), pp. 61-65. (doi:10.1580/08-WEME-BR-183.1). (PMID:19364164).
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Objective: to demonstrate that the Snow Snorkel can be used safely by healthy volunteers buried in snow for up to 1hour.
Methods: nine healthy male volunteers were placed in a shoulder-width trench and buried with snow to a depth of 30 to 40cm. The study was divided into 2 stages. The first stage (Stage 1) was performed with the Snow Snorkel in operation (60-minute duration) and was then followed by a second stage (Stage 2) (15-minute duration) when the device was removed. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), axillary temperature (T), and 3-lead electrocardiography (ECG) were monitored throughout the study.
Results: of the 9vol.nteers who were enrolled, 7 were able to complete Stage 1, while only 3 were able to complete Stage 2. In those who completed Stage 1, the mean HR fell by 14.1 beats/min (P=.002), while RR (P=.5) and SaO2 (P=.7) remained unchanged compared to baseline measurements. There were no changes in T or ECG.
Conclusions: simple systems such as the Snow Snorkel are effective during snow burial and warrant further investigation
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||doi:10.1580/08-WEME-BR-183.1|
|Subjects:||G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GV Recreation Leisure
R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
|Organisations:||Human Development & Health|
|Date Deposited:||22 Feb 2013 11:32|
|Last Modified:||21 Feb 2017 15:59|
|Further Information:||Google Scholar|
|RDF:||RDF+N-Triples, RDF+N3, RDF+XML, Browse.|
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