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Mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide in basalt: a pre-injection overview of the CarbFix project

Mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide in basalt: a pre-injection overview of the CarbFix project
Mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide in basalt: a pre-injection overview of the CarbFix project
In this paper we describe the thermodynamic and kinetic basis for mineral storage of carbon dioxide in basaltic rock, and how this storage can be optimized. Mineral storage is facilitated by the dissolution of CO2 into the aqueous phase. The amount of water required for this dissolution decreases with decreased temperature, decreased salinity, and increased pressure. Experimental and field evidence suggest that the factor limiting the rate of mineral fixation of carbon in silicate rocks is the release rate of divalent cations from silicate minerals and glasses. Ultramafic rocks and basalts, in glassy state, are the most promising rock types for the mineral sequestration of CO2 because of their relatively fast dissolution rate, high concentration of divalent cations, and abundance at the Earth's surface. Admixture of flue gases, such as SO2 and HF, will enhance the dissolution rates of silicate minerals and glasses. Elevated temperature increases dissolution rates but porosity of reactive rock formations decreases rapidly with increasing temperature. Reduced conditions enhance mineral carbonation as reduced iron can precipitate in carbonate minerals. Elevated CO2 partial pressure increases the relative amount of carbonate minerals over other secondary minerals formed. The feasibility to fix CO2 by carbonation in basaltic rocks will be tested in the CarbFix project by: (1) injection of CO2 charged waters into basaltic rocks in SW Iceland, (2) laboratory experiments, (3) studies of natural analogues, and (4) geochemical modelling.
CO2 fixation, CO2 sequestration, mineral carbonation, mineral storage, basalt carbonation, dissolution rate
1750-5836
537-545
Gislason, Sigurdur Reynir
477a1278-74a9-49cc-84eb-cdd574cc5268
Wolff-Boenisch, Domenik
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Stefansson, Andri
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Oelkers, Eric H.
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Gunnlaugsson, Einar
e09d83ba-3a55-4647-a2ce-2e3692ee0bcf
Sigurdardottir, Hólmfridur
1a023837-bc8a-4c7a-8360-824401b95bbc
Sigfusson, Bergur
373166b2-cb78-4fce-947e-89f1698c1926
Broecker, Wallace S.
1a341689-cd25-4cd3-9906-729a03705e9a
Matter, Juerg M.
abb60c24-b6cb-4d1a-a108-6fc51ee20395
Stute, Martin
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Axelsson, Gudni
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Fridriksson, Thrainn
ca72cf95-d2e2-4732-b1cb-2bd9fcf1a339
Gislason, Sigurdur Reynir
477a1278-74a9-49cc-84eb-cdd574cc5268
Wolff-Boenisch, Domenik
b7455745-8bf3-434e-98db-29e91075eefe
Stefansson, Andri
fdbf9456-07e2-42e9-8872-5b37af8b6af1
Oelkers, Eric H.
3cf51d71-be44-4bed-803e-3b240bdb147b
Gunnlaugsson, Einar
e09d83ba-3a55-4647-a2ce-2e3692ee0bcf
Sigurdardottir, Hólmfridur
1a023837-bc8a-4c7a-8360-824401b95bbc
Sigfusson, Bergur
373166b2-cb78-4fce-947e-89f1698c1926
Broecker, Wallace S.
1a341689-cd25-4cd3-9906-729a03705e9a
Matter, Juerg M.
abb60c24-b6cb-4d1a-a108-6fc51ee20395
Stute, Martin
1d6a7971-cf3f-48d4-8962-da892b51b25b
Axelsson, Gudni
146d9f34-d3de-4a32-a1b7-0f461a27a39e
Fridriksson, Thrainn
ca72cf95-d2e2-4732-b1cb-2bd9fcf1a339

Gislason, Sigurdur Reynir, Wolff-Boenisch, Domenik, Stefansson, Andri, Oelkers, Eric H., Gunnlaugsson, Einar, Sigurdardottir, Hólmfridur, Sigfusson, Bergur, Broecker, Wallace S., Matter, Juerg M., Stute, Martin, Axelsson, Gudni and Fridriksson, Thrainn (2010) Mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide in basalt: a pre-injection overview of the CarbFix project International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 4, (3), pp. 537-545. (doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2009.11.013).

Record type: Article

Abstract

In this paper we describe the thermodynamic and kinetic basis for mineral storage of carbon dioxide in basaltic rock, and how this storage can be optimized. Mineral storage is facilitated by the dissolution of CO2 into the aqueous phase. The amount of water required for this dissolution decreases with decreased temperature, decreased salinity, and increased pressure. Experimental and field evidence suggest that the factor limiting the rate of mineral fixation of carbon in silicate rocks is the release rate of divalent cations from silicate minerals and glasses. Ultramafic rocks and basalts, in glassy state, are the most promising rock types for the mineral sequestration of CO2 because of their relatively fast dissolution rate, high concentration of divalent cations, and abundance at the Earth's surface. Admixture of flue gases, such as SO2 and HF, will enhance the dissolution rates of silicate minerals and glasses. Elevated temperature increases dissolution rates but porosity of reactive rock formations decreases rapidly with increasing temperature. Reduced conditions enhance mineral carbonation as reduced iron can precipitate in carbonate minerals. Elevated CO2 partial pressure increases the relative amount of carbonate minerals over other secondary minerals formed. The feasibility to fix CO2 by carbonation in basaltic rocks will be tested in the CarbFix project by: (1) injection of CO2 charged waters into basaltic rocks in SW Iceland, (2) laboratory experiments, (3) studies of natural analogues, and (4) geochemical modelling.

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Published date: May 2010
Keywords: CO2 fixation, CO2 sequestration, mineral carbonation, mineral storage, basalt carbonation, dissolution rate
Organisations: Geochemistry

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Local EPrints ID: 349449
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/349449
ISSN: 1750-5836
PURE UUID: acf41154-0ebe-480d-98de-020e0bcbd1a9

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Date deposited: 05 Mar 2013 10:57
Last modified: 18 Jul 2017 04:42

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Contributors

Author: Sigurdur Reynir Gislason
Author: Domenik Wolff-Boenisch
Author: Andri Stefansson
Author: Eric H. Oelkers
Author: Einar Gunnlaugsson
Author: Hólmfridur Sigurdardottir
Author: Bergur Sigfusson
Author: Wallace S. Broecker
Author: Juerg M. Matter
Author: Martin Stute
Author: Gudni Axelsson
Author: Thrainn Fridriksson

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