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Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: nutrition or pharmacology?

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: nutrition or pharmacology?
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: nutrition or pharmacology?
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are n-3 fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements. These fatty acids are able to inhibit partly a number of aspects of inflammation including leucocyte chemotaxis, adhesion molecule expression and leucocyte-endothelial adhesive interactions, production of eicosanoids like prostaglandins and leukotrienes from the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, production of inflammatory cytokines and T cell reactivity. In parallel, EPA gives rise to eicosanoids that often have lower biological potency than those produced from arachidonioc acid and EPA and DHA give rise to anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving resolvins and protectins. Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of n-3 fatty acids include altered cell membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition, disruption of lipid rafts, inhibition of activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B so reducing expression of inflammatory genes, activation of the anti-inflammatory transcription factor NR1C3 (i.e. peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ?) and binding to the G protein coupled receptor GPR120. These mechanisms are interlinked. In adult humans, an EPA plus DHA intake greater than 2?g?day(-1) seems to be required to elicit anti-inflammatory actions, but few dose finding studies have been performed. Animal models demonstrate benefit from n-3 fatty acids in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and asthma. Clinical trials of fish oil in patients with RA demonstrate benefit supported by meta-analyses of the data. Clinical trails of fish oil in patients with IBD and asthma are inconsistent with no overall clear evidence of efficacy.

0306-5251
645-662
Calder, P.C.
1797e54f-378e-4dcb-80a4-3e30018f07a6
Calder, P.C.
1797e54f-378e-4dcb-80a4-3e30018f07a6

Calder, P.C. (2013) Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: nutrition or pharmacology? British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 75 (3), 645-662. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04374.x). (PMID:22765297)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are n-3 fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements. These fatty acids are able to inhibit partly a number of aspects of inflammation including leucocyte chemotaxis, adhesion molecule expression and leucocyte-endothelial adhesive interactions, production of eicosanoids like prostaglandins and leukotrienes from the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, production of inflammatory cytokines and T cell reactivity. In parallel, EPA gives rise to eicosanoids that often have lower biological potency than those produced from arachidonioc acid and EPA and DHA give rise to anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving resolvins and protectins. Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of n-3 fatty acids include altered cell membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition, disruption of lipid rafts, inhibition of activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B so reducing expression of inflammatory genes, activation of the anti-inflammatory transcription factor NR1C3 (i.e. peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ?) and binding to the G protein coupled receptor GPR120. These mechanisms are interlinked. In adult humans, an EPA plus DHA intake greater than 2?g?day(-1) seems to be required to elicit anti-inflammatory actions, but few dose finding studies have been performed. Animal models demonstrate benefit from n-3 fatty acids in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and asthma. Clinical trials of fish oil in patients with RA demonstrate benefit supported by meta-analyses of the data. Clinical trails of fish oil in patients with IBD and asthma are inconsistent with no overall clear evidence of efficacy.

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Published date: March 2013
Organisations: Human Development & Health

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 349703
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/349703
ISSN: 0306-5251
PURE UUID: d748a1e9-540b-441b-badd-807e53264cad

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Date deposited: 11 Mar 2013 10:29
Last modified: 18 Jul 2017 04:39

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