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Field enhancement in polymer waveguides fabricated by UV imprinting

Field enhancement in polymer waveguides fabricated by UV imprinting
Field enhancement in polymer waveguides fabricated by UV imprinting
Polymers are applicable materials for photonic device fabrication due to their good optical properties and versatile processability at low temperatures, and therefore, provide possibility for low-cost fabrication. For waveguide device fabrication, the most critical requirement is the selection of the patterning method for the ridge that is bounding the optical mode in the waveguide. In this paper, we review our UV-imprinting achievements for fabricating polymer-based single-mode waveguides: ridge, inverted ridge and layered composite waveguides. In addition, we show simulation results for polymer-based slot waveguides. The ridge waveguide consists of a strip waveguide core superimposed onto a slab waveguide made of the core material. When patterning a ridge by imprinting technique, a residual layer is formed underneath the imprinted ridges. The residual layer might cause propagation loss due to power leakage into the slab guide, and therefore, a subsequent etching step is required. In the inverted ridge waveguide configuration, a groove of cladding material is patterned by imprinting, and followed by the filling of the groove with the core material. From the imprint fabrication point of view, the fabrication tolerances can be relaxed due to the fact that the residual slab layer underneath the waveguide can have arbitrary thickness. Besides fabrication of above mentioned waveguide structures, we review the possibility to fabricate composite waveguide devices by depositing inorganic thin films with high-refractive index on UV-imprinted polymeric structures with low-refractive index. The aim to use composite structures is to manipulate the optical field distribution in the waveguides and to enhance the interaction of the optical field with the surface, which is desirable especially in waveguide sensor applications. The polymer-based slot waveguide, which is analyzed theoretically, is an ultimate approach for optical field enhancement.
Karioja, P.
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Hiltunen, M.
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Hiltunen, J.
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Tuominen, J.
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Wang, M.
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Pearce, S.
54891fdd-25ca-4768-ab4d-27f51be1e3e9
Charlton, M.
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Karioja, P.
5e3e7ea3-7c69-40a8-afa5-fe1895716a9e
Hiltunen, M.
a4a7a200-587a-431a-9ac8-c1d356da1045
Hiltunen, J.
cf4de971-1190-45ee-8809-c31cb8b4b8f4
Tuominen, J.
69d82833-5213-4157-86dd-4b1caf27c620
Wang, M.
66a75e8c-a780-4fe8-8aa6-b37e80a6c134
Pearce, S.
54891fdd-25ca-4768-ab4d-27f51be1e3e9
Charlton, M.
fcf86ab0-8f34-411a-b576-4f684e51e274

Karioja, P., Hiltunen, M., Hiltunen, J., Tuominen, J., Wang, M., Pearce, S. and Charlton, M. (2011) Field enhancement in polymer waveguides fabricated by UV imprinting. IMOC 2011, Brazil. 29 Oct - 01 Nov 2011.

Record type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)

Abstract

Polymers are applicable materials for photonic device fabrication due to their good optical properties and versatile processability at low temperatures, and therefore, provide possibility for low-cost fabrication. For waveguide device fabrication, the most critical requirement is the selection of the patterning method for the ridge that is bounding the optical mode in the waveguide. In this paper, we review our UV-imprinting achievements for fabricating polymer-based single-mode waveguides: ridge, inverted ridge and layered composite waveguides. In addition, we show simulation results for polymer-based slot waveguides. The ridge waveguide consists of a strip waveguide core superimposed onto a slab waveguide made of the core material. When patterning a ridge by imprinting technique, a residual layer is formed underneath the imprinted ridges. The residual layer might cause propagation loss due to power leakage into the slab guide, and therefore, a subsequent etching step is required. In the inverted ridge waveguide configuration, a groove of cladding material is patterned by imprinting, and followed by the filling of the groove with the core material. From the imprint fabrication point of view, the fabrication tolerances can be relaxed due to the fact that the residual slab layer underneath the waveguide can have arbitrary thickness. Besides fabrication of above mentioned waveguide structures, we review the possibility to fabricate composite waveguide devices by depositing inorganic thin films with high-refractive index on UV-imprinted polymeric structures with low-refractive index. The aim to use composite structures is to manipulate the optical field distribution in the waveguides and to enhance the interaction of the optical field with the surface, which is desirable especially in waveguide sensor applications. The polymer-based slot waveguide, which is analyzed theoretically, is an ultimate approach for optical field enhancement.

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More information

Published date: 31 October 2011
Venue - Dates: IMOC 2011, Brazil, 2011-10-29 - 2011-11-01
Organisations: Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 350326
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/350326
PURE UUID: 03395e37-e60a-47e0-8e90-4cfd31654605

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Date deposited: 25 Mar 2013 15:28
Last modified: 16 Jul 2019 21:39

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Contributors

Author: P. Karioja
Author: M. Hiltunen
Author: J. Hiltunen
Author: J. Tuominen
Author: M. Wang
Author: S. Pearce
Author: M. Charlton

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