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Carbon capture and storage in deep ocean space for the 21st century: guidelines for implementation in China

Carbon capture and storage in deep ocean space for the 21st century: guidelines for implementation in China
Carbon capture and storage in deep ocean space for the 21st century: guidelines for implementation in China
Since the original findings of the Swedish Nobel laureate Arrhenius in 1896 linking the temperature of the Earth to the gaseous composition of our atmosphere we have come a long way. However, one of the most startling observations is the increasing mean carbon dioxide concentration at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Recordings from 1960 to the present show a total increase of almost 80 ppm CO2 to the present value of 392 in July 2011. Even without the implications on climate change, the simple fact that anthropogenic contributions of CO2 are obligation enough to seek solutions to solve the issue at hand. However the sequestration of CO2 is a multi-dimensional problem with no simple solution to be offered. It is likely dependent on the individual nation, the most accessible storage site both logistically and economically will be a driving factor in the decision making process. It is with this that attention is placed on the preliminary suggestion by Marchetti in 1977, who thought of sequestering CO2 in the path of ocean currents where natural processes would disperse it further, thus mitigating the problem. Ever since then, the concept of ocean storage of CO2 has received mixed views. Although many are currently championing the concept of geological storage, the authors believe that ocean storage, though risky, should be considered nonetheless as a viable alternative. Case in point is China with its extended coastline and relatively close access to open sea as well as deep basins makes it a prime choice. China?s continued dependence on fossil fuels for power generation and startling economic growth are additional incentive for the authors to put forward views on CCS in its current state of development.

This report serves to outline some high level views in the form of possible future guidelines for a complete solution of the CCS value chain. The report is organised into eight chapters that meticulously address different elements of a CCS system. Chapter One introduces the implications of climate change as well as the project design. System characterisation is addressed in Chapter Two and Three where an effort to give a broad overview of the project, inclusive of public concerns, is made. The authors propose a complete solution that encompasses the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) effluents. Chapter Four focuses on the arrangements for transporting carbon dioxide via pipelines and liquid bulk shipment of CO2 to offshore platforms. Potential risks were identified and mitigation measures were proposed in Chapter Five. Sequestration in ocean space, proposed dilution rate as well as perceived effects associated with ocean acidification form the main argument in Chapter Six with specific application to China. The proposed solution allows for a measure of flexibility to the readers and the authors deem such an approach being necessary as CCS implementation is still in its infancy. With the capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants by means of traditional and emerging technologies, both retrofitting of existing plants or the continued use of coal in more efficient greener plants can be considered.

The choice of ocean space for sequestration purposes was primarily based on the desire to stimulate further study as there are little known effects of CO2 at great ocean depths. By addressing this topic the authors also accede to the fact that there are challenges and risks (Chapter Seven and Eight) to this storage solution that deserved further examination. As a result, public engagement strategies that are essential in getting the public interested about CCS should be actively supported. Lastly, CCS solutions in the long run should endeavor to achieve a zero carbon footprint while accommodating the steady strong development of the Chinese economy.
978-0854329274
1
University of Southampton
Livermont, Elizabeth A.
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Koh, YongJie
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Mlambo, Taurai
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Bhawanin, Mahesa
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Zhao, BinBin
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Shenoi, R.A.
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Wilson, P.A.
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Livermont, Elizabeth A.
3dd5bf58-aaa3-430e-bf3e-acde8a3846e7
Koh, YongJie
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Mlambo, Taurai
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Bhawanin, Mahesa
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Zhao, BinBin
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Shenoi, R.A.
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Wilson, P.A.
8307fa11-5d5e-47f6-9961-9d43767afa00

Livermont, Elizabeth A., Koh, YongJie, Mlambo, Taurai, Bhawanin, Mahesa and Zhao, BinBin , Shenoi, R.A. and Wilson, P.A. (eds.) (2011) Carbon capture and storage in deep ocean space for the 21st century: guidelines for implementation in China (The LRET Collegium 2011 Series: Carbon Capture and Sequestration in Ocean Space, 1), Southampton, GB. University of Southampton, 152pp.

Record type: Book

Abstract

Since the original findings of the Swedish Nobel laureate Arrhenius in 1896 linking the temperature of the Earth to the gaseous composition of our atmosphere we have come a long way. However, one of the most startling observations is the increasing mean carbon dioxide concentration at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Recordings from 1960 to the present show a total increase of almost 80 ppm CO2 to the present value of 392 in July 2011. Even without the implications on climate change, the simple fact that anthropogenic contributions of CO2 are obligation enough to seek solutions to solve the issue at hand. However the sequestration of CO2 is a multi-dimensional problem with no simple solution to be offered. It is likely dependent on the individual nation, the most accessible storage site both logistically and economically will be a driving factor in the decision making process. It is with this that attention is placed on the preliminary suggestion by Marchetti in 1977, who thought of sequestering CO2 in the path of ocean currents where natural processes would disperse it further, thus mitigating the problem. Ever since then, the concept of ocean storage of CO2 has received mixed views. Although many are currently championing the concept of geological storage, the authors believe that ocean storage, though risky, should be considered nonetheless as a viable alternative. Case in point is China with its extended coastline and relatively close access to open sea as well as deep basins makes it a prime choice. China?s continued dependence on fossil fuels for power generation and startling economic growth are additional incentive for the authors to put forward views on CCS in its current state of development.

This report serves to outline some high level views in the form of possible future guidelines for a complete solution of the CCS value chain. The report is organised into eight chapters that meticulously address different elements of a CCS system. Chapter One introduces the implications of climate change as well as the project design. System characterisation is addressed in Chapter Two and Three where an effort to give a broad overview of the project, inclusive of public concerns, is made. The authors propose a complete solution that encompasses the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) effluents. Chapter Four focuses on the arrangements for transporting carbon dioxide via pipelines and liquid bulk shipment of CO2 to offshore platforms. Potential risks were identified and mitigation measures were proposed in Chapter Five. Sequestration in ocean space, proposed dilution rate as well as perceived effects associated with ocean acidification form the main argument in Chapter Six with specific application to China. The proposed solution allows for a measure of flexibility to the readers and the authors deem such an approach being necessary as CCS implementation is still in its infancy. With the capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants by means of traditional and emerging technologies, both retrofitting of existing plants or the continued use of coal in more efficient greener plants can be considered.

The choice of ocean space for sequestration purposes was primarily based on the desire to stimulate further study as there are little known effects of CO2 at great ocean depths. By addressing this topic the authors also accede to the fact that there are challenges and risks (Chapter Seven and Eight) to this storage solution that deserved further examination. As a result, public engagement strategies that are essential in getting the public interested about CCS should be actively supported. Lastly, CCS solutions in the long run should endeavor to achieve a zero carbon footprint while accommodating the steady strong development of the Chinese economy.

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Published date: August 2011
Organisations: Fluid Structure Interactions Group

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Local EPrints ID: 350402
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/350402
ISBN: 978-0854329274
PURE UUID: b3697105-e8d6-405c-b917-0d9aeea94dbb
ORCID for P.A. Wilson: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6939-682X

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Date deposited: 26 Mar 2013 12:26
Last modified: 11 Dec 2021 02:39

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Contributors

Author: Elizabeth A. Livermont
Author: YongJie Koh
Author: Taurai Mlambo
Author: Mahesa Bhawanin
Author: BinBin Zhao
Editor: R.A. Shenoi
Editor: P.A. Wilson ORCID iD

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