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The effects of high HIV prevalence on orphanhood and living arrangements of children in Malawi, Tanzania, and South Africa

The effects of high HIV prevalence on orphanhood and living arrangements of children in Malawi, Tanzania, and South Africa
The effects of high HIV prevalence on orphanhood and living arrangements of children in Malawi, Tanzania, and South Africa
Using longitudinal data from three demographic surveillance systems (DSS) and a retrospective cohort study, we estimate levels and trends in the prevalence and incidence of orphanhood in South Africa, Tanzania, and Malawi in the period 1988–2004. The prevalence of maternal, paternal, and double orphans rose in all three populations. In South Africa—where the HIV epidemic started later, has been very severe, and has not yet stabilized—the incidence of orphanhood among children is double that of the other populations. The living arrangements of children vary considerably between the populations, particularly in relation to fathers. Patterns of marriage, migration, and adult mortality influence the living and care arrangements of orphans and non-orphans. DSS data provide new insights into the impact of adult mortality on children, challenging several widely held assumptions. For example, we find no evidence that the prevalence of child-headed households is significant or has increased in the three study areas.
hiv, aids, orphans, living arrangements, longitudinal studies, sub-saharan africa
0032-4728
327-336
Hosegood, V.
c59a89d5-5edc-42dd-b282-f44458fd2993
Floyd, S.
982a6a32-cec8-4cea-893b-e04b983c9050
Marston, M.
e805459e-71c2-4e04-9927-10794820169d
Hill, C.
f8e9fa28-fd5a-4ad1-9c1d-b1acd846c94e
McGrath, N.
b75c0232-24ec-443f-93a9-69e9e12dc961
Isingo, R.
4d22a81b-044e-4dd5-8a13-038c73229260
Crampin, A.
a6e9b1bc-deec-415c-b5fb-1a098fbc0852
Zaba, B.
e6c30ee3-64fb-4d0f-8602-599ff1e79043
Hosegood, V.
c59a89d5-5edc-42dd-b282-f44458fd2993
Floyd, S.
982a6a32-cec8-4cea-893b-e04b983c9050
Marston, M.
e805459e-71c2-4e04-9927-10794820169d
Hill, C.
f8e9fa28-fd5a-4ad1-9c1d-b1acd846c94e
McGrath, N.
b75c0232-24ec-443f-93a9-69e9e12dc961
Isingo, R.
4d22a81b-044e-4dd5-8a13-038c73229260
Crampin, A.
a6e9b1bc-deec-415c-b5fb-1a098fbc0852
Zaba, B.
e6c30ee3-64fb-4d0f-8602-599ff1e79043

Hosegood, V., Floyd, S., Marston, M., Hill, C., McGrath, N., Isingo, R., Crampin, A. and Zaba, B. (2007) The effects of high HIV prevalence on orphanhood and living arrangements of children in Malawi, Tanzania, and South Africa. Population Studies, 61 (3), 327-336. (doi:10.1080/00324720701524292).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Using longitudinal data from three demographic surveillance systems (DSS) and a retrospective cohort study, we estimate levels and trends in the prevalence and incidence of orphanhood in South Africa, Tanzania, and Malawi in the period 1988–2004. The prevalence of maternal, paternal, and double orphans rose in all three populations. In South Africa—where the HIV epidemic started later, has been very severe, and has not yet stabilized—the incidence of orphanhood among children is double that of the other populations. The living arrangements of children vary considerably between the populations, particularly in relation to fathers. Patterns of marriage, migration, and adult mortality influence the living and care arrangements of orphans and non-orphans. DSS data provide new insights into the impact of adult mortality on children, challenging several widely held assumptions. For example, we find no evidence that the prevalence of child-headed households is significant or has increased in the three study areas.

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Published date: 2 November 2007
Keywords: hiv, aids, orphans, living arrangements, longitudinal studies, sub-saharan africa
Organisations: Faculty of Health Sciences

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 350479
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/350479
ISSN: 0032-4728
PURE UUID: 47ce6ffb-7e54-47b8-83a2-8c9df2f6afb5
ORCID for V. Hosegood: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-2244-2518
ORCID for N. McGrath: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-1039-0159

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Date deposited: 25 Mar 2013 15:15
Last modified: 17 Dec 2019 01:40

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Contributors

Author: V. Hosegood ORCID iD
Author: S. Floyd
Author: M. Marston
Author: C. Hill
Author: N. McGrath ORCID iD
Author: R. Isingo
Author: A. Crampin
Author: B. Zaba

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