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Specificity of basic information processing and inhibitory control in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Specificity of basic information processing and inhibitory control in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Specificity of basic information processing and inhibitory control in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Background: Both inhibitory-based executive functioning (IB-EF) and basic information processing (BIP) deficits are found in clinic-referred attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) samples. However, it remains to be determined whether: (1) such deficits occur in non-referred samples of ADHD; (2) they are specific to ADHD; (3) the co-morbidity between ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) has additive or interactive effects; and (4) IB-EF deficits are primary in ADHD or are due to BIP deficits.

Method: We assessed 704 subjects (age 6–12 years) from a non-referred sample using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) and classified them into five groups: typical developing controls (TDC; n = 378), Fear disorders (n = 90), Distress disorders (n = 57), ADHD (n = 100), ODD/CD (n = 40) and ADHD+ODD/CD (n = 39). We evaluated neurocognitive performance with a Two-Choice Reaction Time Task (2C-RT), a Conflict Control Task (CCT) and a Go/No-Go (GNG) task. We used a diffusion model (DM) to decompose BIP into processing efficiency, speed–accuracy trade-off and encoding/motor function along with variability parameters.

Results: Poorer processing efficiency was found to be specific to ADHD. Faster encoding/motor function differentiated ADHD from TDC and from fear/distress whereas a more cautious (not impulsive) response style differentiated ADHD from both TDC and ODD/CD. The co-morbidity between ADHD and ODD/CD reflected only additive effects. All ADHD-related IB-EF classical effects were fully moderated by deficits in BIP.

Conclusions: Our findings challenge the IB-EF hypothesis for ADHD and underscore the importance of processing efficiency as the key specific mechanism for ADHD pathophysiology.
0033-2917
1-15
Salum, G.A.
b94a4d3d-eba8-4116-9652-5f7fdf65e8f4
Sergeant, J.
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Sonuga-Barke, E.
bc80bf95-6cf9-4c76-a09d-eaaf0b717635
Vandekerckhove, J.
2c3b0cd5-1fa8-4c05-865b-741655efcace
Gadelha, A.
5c43d356-b83e-4edd-8d8d-21ba936cbcde
Pan, P.M.
00473d25-32ac-4050-b0a0-a0634f48aa29
Moriyama, T.S.
dfb88590-4552-4fd3-b484-e3584896a7b3
Graeff-Martins, A.S.
17a927ac-a410-496f-9b39-30eccd2a2528
de Alvarenga, P.Gomes
cbf7bf48-1161-4186-9e91-e44b405a3516
do Rosário, M.C.
552bf7cb-89d0-4527-ac36-bc05c1c8269b
Manfro, G.G.
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Polanczyk, G.
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Rohde, L.A.P.
297c8ec7-b9fb-4137-bb72-caad7ec7c70f
Salum, G.A.
b94a4d3d-eba8-4116-9652-5f7fdf65e8f4
Sergeant, J.
76cfd9c5-bab9-4119-b5c2-af1749e22c71
Sonuga-Barke, E.
bc80bf95-6cf9-4c76-a09d-eaaf0b717635
Vandekerckhove, J.
2c3b0cd5-1fa8-4c05-865b-741655efcace
Gadelha, A.
5c43d356-b83e-4edd-8d8d-21ba936cbcde
Pan, P.M.
00473d25-32ac-4050-b0a0-a0634f48aa29
Moriyama, T.S.
dfb88590-4552-4fd3-b484-e3584896a7b3
Graeff-Martins, A.S.
17a927ac-a410-496f-9b39-30eccd2a2528
de Alvarenga, P.Gomes
cbf7bf48-1161-4186-9e91-e44b405a3516
do Rosário, M.C.
552bf7cb-89d0-4527-ac36-bc05c1c8269b
Manfro, G.G.
648bc8b0-1189-4d1e-97ca-b9a0710f98c7
Polanczyk, G.
08abcee3-7c4a-4e4d-a7f9-8145050e6b8c
Rohde, L.A.P.
297c8ec7-b9fb-4137-bb72-caad7ec7c70f

Salum, G.A., Sergeant, J., Sonuga-Barke, E., Vandekerckhove, J., Gadelha, A., Pan, P.M., Moriyama, T.S., Graeff-Martins, A.S., de Alvarenga, P.Gomes, do Rosário, M.C., Manfro, G.G., Polanczyk, G. and Rohde, L.A.P. (2013) Specificity of basic information processing and inhibitory control in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychological Medicine, 1-15. (doi:10.1017/S0033291713000639).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background: Both inhibitory-based executive functioning (IB-EF) and basic information processing (BIP) deficits are found in clinic-referred attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) samples. However, it remains to be determined whether: (1) such deficits occur in non-referred samples of ADHD; (2) they are specific to ADHD; (3) the co-morbidity between ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) has additive or interactive effects; and (4) IB-EF deficits are primary in ADHD or are due to BIP deficits.

Method: We assessed 704 subjects (age 6–12 years) from a non-referred sample using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) and classified them into five groups: typical developing controls (TDC; n = 378), Fear disorders (n = 90), Distress disorders (n = 57), ADHD (n = 100), ODD/CD (n = 40) and ADHD+ODD/CD (n = 39). We evaluated neurocognitive performance with a Two-Choice Reaction Time Task (2C-RT), a Conflict Control Task (CCT) and a Go/No-Go (GNG) task. We used a diffusion model (DM) to decompose BIP into processing efficiency, speed–accuracy trade-off and encoding/motor function along with variability parameters.

Results: Poorer processing efficiency was found to be specific to ADHD. Faster encoding/motor function differentiated ADHD from TDC and from fear/distress whereas a more cautious (not impulsive) response style differentiated ADHD from both TDC and ODD/CD. The co-morbidity between ADHD and ODD/CD reflected only additive effects. All ADHD-related IB-EF classical effects were fully moderated by deficits in BIP.

Conclusions: Our findings challenge the IB-EF hypothesis for ADHD and underscore the importance of processing efficiency as the key specific mechanism for ADHD pathophysiology.

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e-pub ahead of print date: 8 April 2013
Organisations: Clinical Neuroscience

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Local EPrints ID: 350956
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/350956
ISSN: 0033-2917
PURE UUID: f42dab44-cf24-4b72-98a0-1185e83a4b07

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Date deposited: 11 Apr 2013 13:06
Last modified: 16 Jul 2019 21:37

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Contributors

Author: G.A. Salum
Author: J. Sergeant
Author: E. Sonuga-Barke
Author: J. Vandekerckhove
Author: A. Gadelha
Author: P.M. Pan
Author: T.S. Moriyama
Author: A.S. Graeff-Martins
Author: P.Gomes de Alvarenga
Author: M.C. do Rosário
Author: G.G. Manfro
Author: G. Polanczyk
Author: L.A.P. Rohde

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