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ADHD performance reflects inefficient but not impulsive information processing: a diffusion model analysis

ADHD performance reflects inefficient but not impulsive information processing: a diffusion model analysis
ADHD performance reflects inefficient but not impulsive information processing: a diffusion model analysis
Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with performance deficits across a broad range of tasks. Although individual tasks are designed to tap specific cognitive functions (e.g., memory, inhibition, planning, etc.), these deficits could also reflect general effects related to either inefficient or impulsive information processing or both. These two components cannot be isolated from each other on the basis of classical analysis in which mean reaction time (RT) and mean accuracy are handled separately. Method: Seventy children with a diagnosis of combined type ADHD and 50 healthy controls (between 6 and 17 years) performed two tasks: a simple two-choice RT (2-CRT) task and a conflict control task (CCT) that required higher levels of executive control. RT and errors were analyzed using the Ratcliff diffusion model, which divides decisional time into separate estimates of information processing efficiency (called “drift rate”) and speed-accuracy tradeoff (SATO, called “boundary”). The model also provides an estimate of general nondecisional time. Results: Results were the same for both tasks independent of executive load. ADHD was associated with lower drift rate and less nondecisional time. The groups did not differ in terms of boundary parameter estimates. Conclusion: RT and accuracy performance in ADHD appears to reflect inefficient rather than impulsive information processing, an effect independent of executive function load. The results are consistent with models in which basic information processing deficits make an important contribution to the ADHD cognitive phenotype
0894-4105
193-200
Metin, Baris
8203cbc4-64ac-406a-8aa7-6e2f43b82ef8
Roeyers, Herbert
3554b6b3-e364-4a6a-9e8b-64f5188a6d60
Wiersema, Jan R.
cc91556a-6a9f-4079-b0b8-502bd729b936
van der Meere, Jaap J.
7b615118-6a37-40d8-b093-d78bffbf8d1c
Thompson, Margaret
bfe8522c-b252-4771-8036-744e93357c67
Sonuga-Barke, Edmund
bc80bf95-6cf9-4c76-a09d-eaaf0b717635
Metin, Baris
8203cbc4-64ac-406a-8aa7-6e2f43b82ef8
Roeyers, Herbert
3554b6b3-e364-4a6a-9e8b-64f5188a6d60
Wiersema, Jan R.
cc91556a-6a9f-4079-b0b8-502bd729b936
van der Meere, Jaap J.
7b615118-6a37-40d8-b093-d78bffbf8d1c
Thompson, Margaret
bfe8522c-b252-4771-8036-744e93357c67
Sonuga-Barke, Edmund
bc80bf95-6cf9-4c76-a09d-eaaf0b717635

Metin, Baris, Roeyers, Herbert, Wiersema, Jan R., van der Meere, Jaap J., Thompson, Margaret and Sonuga-Barke, Edmund (2013) ADHD performance reflects inefficient but not impulsive information processing: a diffusion model analysis. Neuropsychology, 27 (2), 193-200. (doi:10.1037/a0031533). (PMID:23527647)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with performance deficits across a broad range of tasks. Although individual tasks are designed to tap specific cognitive functions (e.g., memory, inhibition, planning, etc.), these deficits could also reflect general effects related to either inefficient or impulsive information processing or both. These two components cannot be isolated from each other on the basis of classical analysis in which mean reaction time (RT) and mean accuracy are handled separately. Method: Seventy children with a diagnosis of combined type ADHD and 50 healthy controls (between 6 and 17 years) performed two tasks: a simple two-choice RT (2-CRT) task and a conflict control task (CCT) that required higher levels of executive control. RT and errors were analyzed using the Ratcliff diffusion model, which divides decisional time into separate estimates of information processing efficiency (called “drift rate”) and speed-accuracy tradeoff (SATO, called “boundary”). The model also provides an estimate of general nondecisional time. Results: Results were the same for both tasks independent of executive load. ADHD was associated with lower drift rate and less nondecisional time. The groups did not differ in terms of boundary parameter estimates. Conclusion: RT and accuracy performance in ADHD appears to reflect inefficient rather than impulsive information processing, an effect independent of executive function load. The results are consistent with models in which basic information processing deficits make an important contribution to the ADHD cognitive phenotype

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Published date: March 2013
Organisations: Clinical Neuroscience

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Local EPrints ID: 351007
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/351007
ISSN: 0894-4105
PURE UUID: 7989aaac-2e85-4184-a881-de8970f9d304

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Date deposited: 15 Apr 2013 08:53
Last modified: 16 Jul 2019 21:37

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