Mturi, Akim J. and Hinde, P.R. Andrew
Case study. Recent demographic change in Tanzania: causes, consequences and future prospects
Journal of International Development, 7, (1), . (doi:10.1002/jid.3380070108).
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Fertility in Tanzania has declined from seven children per woman in the early 1980s to about six in the early 1990s. This trend is a result of a rise in the age at first marriage for women, a decline in infant and child mortality, a rise in the percentage of the population with education, and rural development. The continuing universal and prolonged breastfeeding also has a significant negative effect on fertility. A further fertility decline in Tanzania will depend mainly on the success of the family planning programme, which in turn will improve the performance of the economy, health, education, employment, agriculture and the environment. Mortality levels have declined but are still high owing to various factors, including short birth intervals, teenage pregnancies, the low status of women, the lack of adequate health services and facilities and a lack of proper programmes targeted at regions and families with relatively high mortality.
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