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Effects of setting bone cement on tissue-engineered bone graft: a potential barrier to clinical translation?

Effects of setting bone cement on tissue-engineered bone graft: a potential barrier to clinical translation?
Effects of setting bone cement on tissue-engineered bone graft: a potential barrier to clinical translation?
Background: strategies to improve mechanical strength, neovascularization, and the regenerative capacity of allograft include both the addition of skeletal stemcells and the investigation of novel biomaterials to reduce and ultimately obviate the need for allograft altogether. Use of bone cement is a common method of stabilizing implants in conjunction with impacted allograft. Curing cement, however, can reach temperatures in excess of 70°C, which is potentially harmful to skeletal stem cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of setting bone cement on the survival of human adult skeletal stem cells within tissue-engineered allograft and a novel allograft substitute.

Methods: milled allograft and a polymer graft substitute were seeded with skeletal stemcells, impacted into a graduated chamber, and exposed to curing bone cement. Sections were removed at 5-mm increments from the allograft-cement interface. A quantitative WST-1 assay was performed on each section as a measure of remaining cell viability. A second stage of the experiment involved assessment of methods to potentially enhance cell survival, including pretreating the allograft or polymer by either cooling to 5°C or coating with 1% Laponite, or both.

Results: there was a significant drop in cellular activity in the sections taken from within 0.5 cm of the cement interface in both the allograft and the polymer (p < 0.05), although there was still measurable cellular activity. Pretreatment methods did not significantly improve cell survival in any group.

Conclusions: while the addition of bone cement reduced cellular viability of tissue-engineered constructs, this reduction occurred only in close proximity to the cement and measurable numbers of skeletal stem cells were observed, confirming the potential for cell population recovery.

Clinical Relevance: These studies highlight a potential pitfall when translating tissue-engineering strategies, but indicate that the use of bone cement should not necessarily be ruled out during the application of cell populations and
biomaterials in tissue regeneration.
0021-9355
192-197
Tayton, Edward R.
2c0e26d2-1f5f-498d-9ff7-d22200f19b3a
Smith, James O.
027f2a5a-1966-4077-97a7-f70d2e6b06b2
Evans, Nicholas
06a05c97-bfed-4abb-9244-34ec9f4b4b95
Dickinson, Alexander
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Aarvold, Alexander
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Kalra, Spandan
11e40a03-09e6-486d-a764-3cc5e0c481e7
Purcell, Matthew
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Howdle, Steven
2cc7f6ee-4645-4118-9c5e-d987230bfce1
Dunlop, D.G.
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Oreffo, Richard O.C.
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Tayton, Edward R.
2c0e26d2-1f5f-498d-9ff7-d22200f19b3a
Smith, James O.
027f2a5a-1966-4077-97a7-f70d2e6b06b2
Evans, Nicholas
06a05c97-bfed-4abb-9244-34ec9f4b4b95
Dickinson, Alexander
10151972-c1b5-4f7d-bc12-6482b5870cad
Aarvold, Alexander
11dc317f-47fd-4b2c-b0a6-78688c679b5a
Kalra, Spandan
11e40a03-09e6-486d-a764-3cc5e0c481e7
Purcell, Matthew
69a3121a-489d-4b8d-9249-9829727d1a06
Howdle, Steven
2cc7f6ee-4645-4118-9c5e-d987230bfce1
Dunlop, D.G.
5f8d8b5c-e516-48b8-831f-c6e5529a52cc
Oreffo, Richard O.C.
ff9fff72-6855-4d0f-bfb2-311d0e8f3778

Tayton, Edward R., Smith, James O., Evans, Nicholas, Dickinson, Alexander, Aarvold, Alexander, Kalra, Spandan, Purcell, Matthew, Howdle, Steven, Dunlop, D.G. and Oreffo, Richard O.C. (2013) Effects of setting bone cement on tissue-engineered bone graft: a potential barrier to clinical translation? The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 95 (8), 192-197. (doi:10.2106/JBJS.L.00164). (PMID:23595073)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background: strategies to improve mechanical strength, neovascularization, and the regenerative capacity of allograft include both the addition of skeletal stemcells and the investigation of novel biomaterials to reduce and ultimately obviate the need for allograft altogether. Use of bone cement is a common method of stabilizing implants in conjunction with impacted allograft. Curing cement, however, can reach temperatures in excess of 70°C, which is potentially harmful to skeletal stem cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of setting bone cement on the survival of human adult skeletal stem cells within tissue-engineered allograft and a novel allograft substitute.

Methods: milled allograft and a polymer graft substitute were seeded with skeletal stemcells, impacted into a graduated chamber, and exposed to curing bone cement. Sections were removed at 5-mm increments from the allograft-cement interface. A quantitative WST-1 assay was performed on each section as a measure of remaining cell viability. A second stage of the experiment involved assessment of methods to potentially enhance cell survival, including pretreating the allograft or polymer by either cooling to 5°C or coating with 1% Laponite, or both.

Results: there was a significant drop in cellular activity in the sections taken from within 0.5 cm of the cement interface in both the allograft and the polymer (p < 0.05), although there was still measurable cellular activity. Pretreatment methods did not significantly improve cell survival in any group.

Conclusions: while the addition of bone cement reduced cellular viability of tissue-engineered constructs, this reduction occurred only in close proximity to the cement and measurable numbers of skeletal stem cells were observed, confirming the potential for cell population recovery.

Clinical Relevance: These studies highlight a potential pitfall when translating tissue-engineering strategies, but indicate that the use of bone cement should not necessarily be ruled out during the application of cell populations and
biomaterials in tissue regeneration.

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More information

Published date: 17 April 2013
Organisations: Bioengineering Group, Human Development & Health

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 351345
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/351345
ISSN: 0021-9355
PURE UUID: f964a980-d6cd-40f5-950e-94dae98bc6df
ORCID for Nicholas Evans: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-3255-4388
ORCID for Alexander Dickinson: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-9647-1944
ORCID for Richard O.C. Oreffo: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-5995-6726

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Date deposited: 18 Apr 2013 14:43
Last modified: 28 Oct 2023 02:02

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Contributors

Author: Edward R. Tayton
Author: James O. Smith
Author: Nicholas Evans ORCID iD
Author: Alexander Aarvold
Author: Spandan Kalra
Author: Matthew Purcell
Author: Steven Howdle
Author: D.G. Dunlop

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