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Non-imprinted epigenetics in fetal and postnatal development and growth

Non-imprinted epigenetics in fetal and postnatal development and growth
Non-imprinted epigenetics in fetal and postnatal development and growth
Recent evidence demonstrates that the environment in early life can have important effects on fetal and postnatal growth, on development and on risk of developing common non-communicable diseases in later life. In animals, the environment during early life induces altered phenotypes in ways which are influenced or mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. The latter include DNA methylation, covalent modifications of histones and non-coding RNAs. Most is known about DNA methylation changes, which are gene specific, include effects on non-imprinted genes and function at the level of individual CpG dinucleotides to alter gene expression. Preliminary evidence from human studies suggests a similar important role for epigenetic processes. Tuning of phenotype by the developmental environment has adaptive value because it attempts to match an individual's responses to the environment predicted to be experienced later; hence, such processes have been selected during evolution as conferring fitness advantage. When the phenotype is mismatched, e.g. from inaccurate nutritional cues from the mother or placenta before birth, or from rapid environmental change through improved socioeconomic conditions, risk of non-communicable diseases increases. Evidence is accruing that endocrine or nutritional interventions during early postnatal life can reverse epigenetic and phenotypic changes induced, for example, by unbalanced maternal diet during pregnancy. Elucidation of epigenetic processes may enable early intervention strategies to improve early development and growth.
1664-2147
57-63
Godfrey, K.M.
0931701e-fe2c-44b5-8f0d-ec5c7477a6fd
Lillycrop, K.A.
eeaaa78d-0c4d-4033-a178-60ce7345a2cc
Burdge, G.C.
09d60a07-8ca1-4351-9bf1-de6ffcfb2159
Gluckman, P.D.
492295c0-ef71-4871-ad5a-771c98e1059a
Hanson, M.A.
1952fad1-abc7-4284-a0bc-a7eb31f70a3f
Godfrey, K.M.
0931701e-fe2c-44b5-8f0d-ec5c7477a6fd
Lillycrop, K.A.
eeaaa78d-0c4d-4033-a178-60ce7345a2cc
Burdge, G.C.
09d60a07-8ca1-4351-9bf1-de6ffcfb2159
Gluckman, P.D.
492295c0-ef71-4871-ad5a-771c98e1059a
Hanson, M.A.
1952fad1-abc7-4284-a0bc-a7eb31f70a3f

Godfrey, K.M., Lillycrop, K.A., Burdge, G.C., Gluckman, P.D. and Hanson, M.A. (2013) Non-imprinted epigenetics in fetal and postnatal development and growth. Nutrition Institute Workshop Series, 71, 57-63. (doi:10.1159/000342552). (PMID:23502139)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Recent evidence demonstrates that the environment in early life can have important effects on fetal and postnatal growth, on development and on risk of developing common non-communicable diseases in later life. In animals, the environment during early life induces altered phenotypes in ways which are influenced or mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. The latter include DNA methylation, covalent modifications of histones and non-coding RNAs. Most is known about DNA methylation changes, which are gene specific, include effects on non-imprinted genes and function at the level of individual CpG dinucleotides to alter gene expression. Preliminary evidence from human studies suggests a similar important role for epigenetic processes. Tuning of phenotype by the developmental environment has adaptive value because it attempts to match an individual's responses to the environment predicted to be experienced later; hence, such processes have been selected during evolution as conferring fitness advantage. When the phenotype is mismatched, e.g. from inaccurate nutritional cues from the mother or placenta before birth, or from rapid environmental change through improved socioeconomic conditions, risk of non-communicable diseases increases. Evidence is accruing that endocrine or nutritional interventions during early postnatal life can reverse epigenetic and phenotypic changes induced, for example, by unbalanced maternal diet during pregnancy. Elucidation of epigenetic processes may enable early intervention strategies to improve early development and growth.

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Published date: 2013
Organisations: Faculty of Medicine

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 352662
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/352662
ISSN: 1664-2147
PURE UUID: c42f0ade-f6ce-462d-89e6-b52d63f07f50
ORCID for K.M. Godfrey: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4643-0618
ORCID for K.A. Lillycrop: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-7350-5489
ORCID for G.C. Burdge: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-7665-2967
ORCID for M.A. Hanson: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6907-613X

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Date deposited: 16 May 2013 14:11
Last modified: 07 Oct 2020 01:45

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Contributors

Author: K.M. Godfrey ORCID iD
Author: K.A. Lillycrop ORCID iD
Author: G.C. Burdge ORCID iD
Author: P.D. Gluckman
Author: M.A. Hanson ORCID iD

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