Tough adults, frail babies: an analysis of stress sensitivity across early life-history stages of widely introduced marine invertebrates


Pineda, M. Carmen, McQuaid, Christopher D., Turon, Xavier, López-Legentil, Susanna, Ordóñez, Víctor and Rius, Marc (2012) Tough adults, frail babies: an analysis of stress sensitivity across early life-history stages of widely introduced marine invertebrates PLoS ONE, 7, (10), e46672. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046672).

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Description/Abstract

All ontogenetic stages of a life cycle are exposed to environmental conditions so that population persistence depends on the performance of both adults and offspring. Most studies analysing the influence of abiotic conditions on species performance have focussed on adults, while studies covering early life-history stages remain rare. We investigated the responses of early stages of two widely introduced ascidians, Styela plicata and Microcosmus squamiger, to different abiotic conditions. Stressors mimicked conditions in the habitats where both species can be found in their distributional ranges and responses were related to the selection potential of their populations by analysing their genetic diversity. Four developmental stages (egg fertilisation, larval development, settlement, metamorphosis) were studied after exposure to high temperature (30°C), low salinities (26 and 22‰) and high copper concentrations (25, 50 and 100 µg/L). Although most stressors effectively led to failure of complete development (fertilisation through metamorphosis), fertilisation and larval development were the most sensitive stages. All the studied stressors affected the development of both species, though responses differed with stage and stressor. S. plicata was overall more resistant to copper, and some stages of M. squamiger to low salinities. No relationship was found between parental genetic composition and responses to stressors. We conclude that successful development can be prevented at several life-history stages, and therefore, it is essential to consider multiple stages when assessing species' abilities to tolerate stress. Moreover, we found that early development of these species cannot be completed under conditions prevailing where adults live. These populations must therefore recruit from elsewhere or reproduce during temporal windows of more benign conditions. Alternatively, novel strategies or behaviours that increase overall reproductive success might be responsible for ensuring population survival.

Item Type: Article
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046672
ISSNs: 1932-6203 (print)
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history > QH301 Biology
Q Science > QH Natural history > QH426 Genetics
Organisations: Ocean Biochemistry & Ecosystems
ePrint ID: 354668
Date :
Date Event
12 October 2012Published
Date Deposited: 17 Jul 2013 10:30
Last Modified: 17 Apr 2017 15:14
Further Information:Google Scholar
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/354668

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