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Phylogeography of the widespread marine invader Microcosmus squamiger (Ascidiacea) reveals high genetic diversity of introduced populations and non-independent colonizations

Phylogeography of the widespread marine invader Microcosmus squamiger (Ascidiacea) reveals high genetic diversity of introduced populations and non-independent colonizations
Phylogeography of the widespread marine invader Microcosmus squamiger (Ascidiacea) reveals high genetic diversity of introduced populations and non-independent colonizations
The spread of non-indigenous species into new marine habitats represents an increasing threat to global diversity. Genetic techniques provide basic understanding of the invasion processes. The ascidian Microcosmus squamiger is considered to be native to Australia, having been spread worldwide via transoceanic vessels. It has successfully invaded artificial and natural habitats where it has become a pest. We studied phylogeography and genetic structure of 12 M. squamiger populations, including samples from its native range (Australia) and introduced populations from the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans, as well as the Mediterranean Sea. We amplified 574 bp of the mitochondrial COI gene in 258 individuals and found a total of 52 haplotypes. A haplotype tree revealed two main groups of haplotypes. The relative frequency of each group of haplotypes, multidimensional scaling, and analysis of molecular variance showed important differences between the western Australia localities and the remaining ones (eastern Australia and introduced populations). Furthermore, we found that the colonization of the different areas by M. squamiger has not occurred independently, as many introduced populations shared some low frequency alleles. A nested clade analysis showed a global pattern of restricted gene flow with isolation by distance, although we found episodes of long-distance dispersal in some clades. A contiguous range expansion was detected between Australian populations. We conclude that M. squamiger is native to Australia and has most likely expanded its range of distribution sequentially through worldwide shipping, especially from the harbours of the more populated eastern Australia. In introduced populations, we found a high genetic diversity which suggests enhanced invasive potential. Consequently, there is a need to control this species, as it outcompetes local biota and is an economic threat.
ascidian, biological invasions, coi, genetic diversity, invasive species, microcosmus squamiger, mtDNA, population differentiation
1366-9516
818-828
Rius, Marc
c4e88345-4b4e-4428-b4b2-37229155f68d
Pascual, Marta
1845f1ba-c502-484d-83ad-21439b727244
Turon, Xavier
df0c3b35-aba1-4657-add0-3c6aee7c08d3
Rius, Marc
c4e88345-4b4e-4428-b4b2-37229155f68d
Pascual, Marta
1845f1ba-c502-484d-83ad-21439b727244
Turon, Xavier
df0c3b35-aba1-4657-add0-3c6aee7c08d3

Rius, Marc, Pascual, Marta and Turon, Xavier (2008) Phylogeography of the widespread marine invader Microcosmus squamiger (Ascidiacea) reveals high genetic diversity of introduced populations and non-independent colonizations Diversity and Distributions, 14, (5), pp. 818-828. (doi:10.1111/j.1472-4642.2008.00485.x).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The spread of non-indigenous species into new marine habitats represents an increasing threat to global diversity. Genetic techniques provide basic understanding of the invasion processes. The ascidian Microcosmus squamiger is considered to be native to Australia, having been spread worldwide via transoceanic vessels. It has successfully invaded artificial and natural habitats where it has become a pest. We studied phylogeography and genetic structure of 12 M. squamiger populations, including samples from its native range (Australia) and introduced populations from the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans, as well as the Mediterranean Sea. We amplified 574 bp of the mitochondrial COI gene in 258 individuals and found a total of 52 haplotypes. A haplotype tree revealed two main groups of haplotypes. The relative frequency of each group of haplotypes, multidimensional scaling, and analysis of molecular variance showed important differences between the western Australia localities and the remaining ones (eastern Australia and introduced populations). Furthermore, we found that the colonization of the different areas by M. squamiger has not occurred independently, as many introduced populations shared some low frequency alleles. A nested clade analysis showed a global pattern of restricted gene flow with isolation by distance, although we found episodes of long-distance dispersal in some clades. A contiguous range expansion was detected between Australian populations. We conclude that M. squamiger is native to Australia and has most likely expanded its range of distribution sequentially through worldwide shipping, especially from the harbours of the more populated eastern Australia. In introduced populations, we found a high genetic diversity which suggests enhanced invasive potential. Consequently, there is a need to control this species, as it outcompetes local biota and is an economic threat.

Text Rius et al. 2008.Divers.Distrib.pdf - Version of Record
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More information

e-pub ahead of print date: 9 May 2008
Published date: September 2008
Keywords: ascidian, biological invasions, coi, genetic diversity, invasive species, microcosmus squamiger, mtDNA, population differentiation
Organisations: Ocean Biochemistry & Ecosystems

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 354687
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/354687
ISSN: 1366-9516
PURE UUID: 5298ab43-7ff6-438d-893f-fc88cbdf82c0

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Date deposited: 17 Jul 2013 12:32
Last modified: 20 Oct 2017 16:35

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Author: Marc Rius
Author: Marta Pascual
Author: Xavier Turon

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