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Mechanisms of biotic resistance across complex life cycles

Mechanisms of biotic resistance across complex life cycles
Mechanisms of biotic resistance across complex life cycles
1. Biotic resistance is the ability of communities to inhibit the establishment, spread or impact of novel species. However, the interactions that underlie biotic resistance depend heavily on the contexts in which species interact. Consequently, studies of biotic resistance that consider single processes, patches, species or life-history stages may provide an incomplete picture of the capacity for communities to resist invasion.

2. Many organisms have multiphasic life cycles, where individuals can occupy distinct niches at different stages of the life history. Generally, studies of biotic resistance focus on interactions within a single life-history stage, and interactions at other life-history stages are overlooked. Here, we demonstrate that different mechanisms of biotic resistance occur across the life history and together limit the invasion success of an introduced marine invertebrate (Ciona intestinalis) in Northern California.

3. We tested the role of interactions (competition and predation) with the resident community in limiting the abundance of Ciona through experiments conducted on fertilization, larval survival, settlement, early postsettlement survival, and the survival of juveniles and adults.

4. Under some circumstances, Ciona became abundant in mid-successional stages and showed more rapid growth rates than a morphologically similar native species, Ascidia ceratodes. However, predators reduced Ciona abundance much more than that of Ascidia at several life stages. Furthermore, Ciona appeared to be a weaker competitor at the adult stage. Early life-history interactions with other sessile species at the fertilization, larval and recruit stages had modest to no effects on Ciona abundance.

5. The presence of biotic resistance mechanisms acting at multiple life stages, and potentially under different conditions, suggests that different components of biotic resistance interact to enhance the resident community's resistance to invasion.
ascidian, epibenthic community, facilitation, larva, life histories, ontogenetic niche shift, predatory effects, species interaction
0021-8790
296-305
Rius, M.
c4e88345-4b4e-4428-b4b2-37229155f68d
Potter, E.E.
085b5935-c216-4eb0-b441-6ef9e1ed6fe6
Aguirre, J.D.
b2ae21a1-51ff-446b-9e2b-e48fe44a5538
Stachowicz, J.J.
437f7f76-f789-4e3e-b5ba-c06a245be5b4
Rius, M.
c4e88345-4b4e-4428-b4b2-37229155f68d
Potter, E.E.
085b5935-c216-4eb0-b441-6ef9e1ed6fe6
Aguirre, J.D.
b2ae21a1-51ff-446b-9e2b-e48fe44a5538
Stachowicz, J.J.
437f7f76-f789-4e3e-b5ba-c06a245be5b4

Rius, M., Potter, E.E., Aguirre, J.D. and Stachowicz, J.J. (2014) Mechanisms of biotic resistance across complex life cycles Journal of Animal Ecology, 83, (1), pp. 296-305. (doi:10.1111/1365-2656.12129).

Record type: Article

Abstract

1. Biotic resistance is the ability of communities to inhibit the establishment, spread or impact of novel species. However, the interactions that underlie biotic resistance depend heavily on the contexts in which species interact. Consequently, studies of biotic resistance that consider single processes, patches, species or life-history stages may provide an incomplete picture of the capacity for communities to resist invasion.

2. Many organisms have multiphasic life cycles, where individuals can occupy distinct niches at different stages of the life history. Generally, studies of biotic resistance focus on interactions within a single life-history stage, and interactions at other life-history stages are overlooked. Here, we demonstrate that different mechanisms of biotic resistance occur across the life history and together limit the invasion success of an introduced marine invertebrate (Ciona intestinalis) in Northern California.

3. We tested the role of interactions (competition and predation) with the resident community in limiting the abundance of Ciona through experiments conducted on fertilization, larval survival, settlement, early postsettlement survival, and the survival of juveniles and adults.

4. Under some circumstances, Ciona became abundant in mid-successional stages and showed more rapid growth rates than a morphologically similar native species, Ascidia ceratodes. However, predators reduced Ciona abundance much more than that of Ascidia at several life stages. Furthermore, Ciona appeared to be a weaker competitor at the adult stage. Early life-history interactions with other sessile species at the fertilization, larval and recruit stages had modest to no effects on Ciona abundance.

5. The presence of biotic resistance mechanisms acting at multiple life stages, and potentially under different conditions, suggests that different components of biotic resistance interact to enhance the resident community's resistance to invasion.

PDF Rius et al. 2014.J.Anim.Ecol.pdf - Version of Record
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More information

e-pub ahead of print date: 20 September 2013
Published date: January 2014
Keywords: ascidian, epibenthic community, facilitation, larva, life histories, ontogenetic niche shift, predatory effects, species interaction
Organisations: Ocean Biochemistry & Ecosystems

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 354690
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/354690
ISSN: 0021-8790
PURE UUID: 03a14d92-f08e-41de-8e1b-ce17ade1afb1

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Date deposited: 17 Jul 2013 12:47
Last modified: 18 Jul 2017 03:53

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Contributors

Author: M. Rius
Author: E.E. Potter
Author: J.D. Aguirre
Author: J.J. Stachowicz

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