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Long term effects of warming and ocean acidification are modified by seasonal variation in species responses and environmental conditions

Long term effects of warming and ocean acidification are modified by seasonal variation in species responses and environmental conditions
Long term effects of warming and ocean acidification are modified by seasonal variation in species responses and environmental conditions
Warming of sea surface temperatures and alteration of ocean chemistry associated with anthropogenic increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide will have profound consequences for a broad range of species, but the potential for seasonal variation to modify species and ecosystem responses to these stressors has received little attention. Here, using the longest experiment to date (542 days), we investigate how the interactive effects of warming and ocean acidification affect the growth, behaviour and associated levels of ecosystem functioning (nutrient release) for a functionally important non-calcifying intertidal polychaete (Alitta virens) under seasonally changing conditions. We find that the effects of warming, ocean acidification and their interactions are not detectable in the short term, but manifest over time through changes in growth, bioturbation and bioirrigation behaviour that, in turn, affect nutrient generation. These changes are intimately linked to species responses to seasonal variations in environmental conditions (temperature and photoperiod) that, depending upon timing, can either exacerbate or buffer the long-term directional effects of climatic forcing. Taken together, our observations caution against over emphasizing the conclusions from short-term experiments and highlight the necessity to consider the temporal expression of complex system dynamics established over appropriate timescales when forecasting the likely ecological consequences of climatic forcing.
acclimation, adaptation, long term, seasonal, phenology, multiple stressors
0962-8436
1-11
Godbold, J.A.
df6da569-e7ea-43ca-8a95-a563829fb88a
Solan, M.
a05395b0-1720-4ceb-a8a9-6d85f643dc51
Godbold, J.A.
df6da569-e7ea-43ca-8a95-a563829fb88a
Solan, M.
a05395b0-1720-4ceb-a8a9-6d85f643dc51

Godbold, J.A. and Solan, M. (2013) Long term effects of warming and ocean acidification are modified by seasonal variation in species responses and environmental conditions. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences, 368 (1627), 1-11. (doi:10.1098/rstb.2013.0186).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Warming of sea surface temperatures and alteration of ocean chemistry associated with anthropogenic increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide will have profound consequences for a broad range of species, but the potential for seasonal variation to modify species and ecosystem responses to these stressors has received little attention. Here, using the longest experiment to date (542 days), we investigate how the interactive effects of warming and ocean acidification affect the growth, behaviour and associated levels of ecosystem functioning (nutrient release) for a functionally important non-calcifying intertidal polychaete (Alitta virens) under seasonally changing conditions. We find that the effects of warming, ocean acidification and their interactions are not detectable in the short term, but manifest over time through changes in growth, bioturbation and bioirrigation behaviour that, in turn, affect nutrient generation. These changes are intimately linked to species responses to seasonal variations in environmental conditions (temperature and photoperiod) that, depending upon timing, can either exacerbate or buffer the long-term directional effects of climatic forcing. Taken together, our observations caution against over emphasizing the conclusions from short-term experiments and highlight the necessity to consider the temporal expression of complex system dynamics established over appropriate timescales when forecasting the likely ecological consequences of climatic forcing.

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e-pub ahead of print date: 26 August 2013
Published date: 5 October 2013
Keywords: acclimation, adaptation, long term, seasonal, phenology, multiple stressors
Organisations: Ocean and Earth Science

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 354983
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/354983
ISSN: 0962-8436
PURE UUID: 29202ed5-1bd2-41c6-8db6-f7ae2ac74022
ORCID for J.A. Godbold: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-5558-8188

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 24 Jul 2013 14:07
Last modified: 09 Jan 2022 03:38

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Contributors

Author: J.A. Godbold ORCID iD
Author: M. Solan

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