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Friend or foe: high bone mineral density on routine bone density scanning, a review of causes and management

Friend or foe: high bone mineral density on routine bone density scanning, a review of causes and management
Friend or foe: high bone mineral density on routine bone density scanning, a review of causes and management
A finding of high BMD on routine DXA scanning is not infrequent and most commonly reflects degenerative disease. However, BMD increases may also arise secondary to a range of underlying disorders affecting the skeleton. Although low BMD increases fracture risk, the converse may not hold for high BMD, since elevated BMD may occur in conditions where fracture risk is increased, unaffected or reduced. Here we outline a classification for the causes of raised BMD, based on identification of focal or generalized BMD changes, and discuss an approach to guide appropriate investigation by clinicians after careful interpretation of DXA scan findings within the context of the clinical history. We will also review the mild skeletal dysplasia associated with the currently unexplained high bone mass phenotype and discuss recent advances in osteoporosis therapies arising from improved understanding of rare inherited high BMD disorders.
dxa, bmd, high bone mass, osteopetrosis, osteoarthritis
1462-0324
968-985
Gregson, Celia L.
30fae822-e733-4e67-b11a-e46dfb1b269a
Hardcastle, Sarah A.
36b0cf50-70e4-47e9-80c6-a9fcca5dec00
Cooper, C.
e05f5612-b493-4273-9b71-9e0ce32bdad6
Tobias, Jonathan H.
514342d7-3491-4a7b-bbeb-b00dcf244daa
Gregson, Celia L.
30fae822-e733-4e67-b11a-e46dfb1b269a
Hardcastle, Sarah A.
36b0cf50-70e4-47e9-80c6-a9fcca5dec00
Cooper, C.
e05f5612-b493-4273-9b71-9e0ce32bdad6
Tobias, Jonathan H.
514342d7-3491-4a7b-bbeb-b00dcf244daa

Gregson, Celia L., Hardcastle, Sarah A., Cooper, C. and Tobias, Jonathan H. (2013) Friend or foe: high bone mineral density on routine bone density scanning, a review of causes and management. Rheumatology, 52 (6), 968-985. (doi:10.1093/rheumatology/ket007). (PMID:23445662)

Record type: Article

Abstract

A finding of high BMD on routine DXA scanning is not infrequent and most commonly reflects degenerative disease. However, BMD increases may also arise secondary to a range of underlying disorders affecting the skeleton. Although low BMD increases fracture risk, the converse may not hold for high BMD, since elevated BMD may occur in conditions where fracture risk is increased, unaffected or reduced. Here we outline a classification for the causes of raised BMD, based on identification of focal or generalized BMD changes, and discuss an approach to guide appropriate investigation by clinicians after careful interpretation of DXA scan findings within the context of the clinical history. We will also review the mild skeletal dysplasia associated with the currently unexplained high bone mass phenotype and discuss recent advances in osteoporosis therapies arising from improved understanding of rare inherited high BMD disorders.

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More information

e-pub ahead of print date: 27 February 2013
Published date: June 2013
Keywords: dxa, bmd, high bone mass, osteopetrosis, osteoarthritis
Organisations: Human Development & Health

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 355186
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/355186
ISSN: 1462-0324
PURE UUID: 7bae32e6-d93a-410d-bbd5-d1a2fe2be3c7
ORCID for C. Cooper: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-3510-0709

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 09 Aug 2013 13:17
Last modified: 08 Jan 2022 02:45

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Contributors

Author: Celia L. Gregson
Author: Sarah A. Hardcastle
Author: C. Cooper ORCID iD
Author: Jonathan H. Tobias

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