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The relationship between depression, anxiety and cardiovascular disease: findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study

The relationship between depression, anxiety and cardiovascular disease: findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study
The relationship between depression, anxiety and cardiovascular disease: findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study
Background:
Previous studies suggest a link between depression, anxiety and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between depressive and anxiety symptoms and CVD in a population based cohort.
Methods: In total 1578 men and 1,417 women from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study were assessed for CVD at baseline and after 5.9±1.4 years. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured using the HADS scale.
Results: Baseline HAD-D score, but not HAD-A, was significantly associated with baseline plasma triglycerides, glucose and insulin resistance (men only) and HDL cholesterol (women only). After adjustment for CVD risk factors, higher baseline HAD-D scores were associated with increased odds ratios for CVD (men: 1.162 [95% CI 1.096–1.231]; women: 1.107 [1.038–1.181]). Higher HAD-A scores associated with increased CVD in men only. High HAD-D scores predicted incident CVD (adjusted OR 1.130 [1.034–1.235]), all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 1.081, [1.012–1.154]) and cardiovascular mortality (adjusted HR 1.109 [1.002–1.229]) in men but not in women.
Limitations: The use of a self-report measure of depressive and anxiety symptoms, ‘healthy’ responder bias and the low number of cardiovascular events are all limitations.
Conclusions: Depressive and anxiety symptoms are commoner in people with CVD. These symptoms are independent predictors of CVD in men. Although HAD-D score was significantly associated with several cardiovascular risk factors, this did not fully explain the association between HAD-D and CVD.
depression, anxiety, cardiovascular disease, epidemiology, population studies
0165-0327
84-90
Holt, Richard I G
d54202e1-fcf6-4a17-a320-9f32d7024393
Phillips, David I W
29b73be7-2ff9-4fff-ae42-d59842df4cc6
Jameson, Karen A
d5fb142d-06af-456e-9016-17497f94e9f2
Cooper, Cyrus
e05f5612-b493-4273-9b71-9e0ce32bdad6
Dennison, Elaine M
ee647287-edb4-4392-8361-e59fd505b1d1
Peveler, Robert C
2923f137-fc5b-4f71-b7b7-f7b571e477fd
Hertfordshire Cohort Study Group
Holt, Richard I G
d54202e1-fcf6-4a17-a320-9f32d7024393
Phillips, David I W
29b73be7-2ff9-4fff-ae42-d59842df4cc6
Jameson, Karen A
d5fb142d-06af-456e-9016-17497f94e9f2
Cooper, Cyrus
e05f5612-b493-4273-9b71-9e0ce32bdad6
Dennison, Elaine M
ee647287-edb4-4392-8361-e59fd505b1d1
Peveler, Robert C
2923f137-fc5b-4f71-b7b7-f7b571e477fd

Hertfordshire Cohort Study Group (2013) The relationship between depression, anxiety and cardiovascular disease: findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 150 (1), 84-90. (doi:10.1016/j.jad.2013.02.026). (PMID:23507368)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background:
Previous studies suggest a link between depression, anxiety and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between depressive and anxiety symptoms and CVD in a population based cohort.
Methods: In total 1578 men and 1,417 women from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study were assessed for CVD at baseline and after 5.9±1.4 years. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured using the HADS scale.
Results: Baseline HAD-D score, but not HAD-A, was significantly associated with baseline plasma triglycerides, glucose and insulin resistance (men only) and HDL cholesterol (women only). After adjustment for CVD risk factors, higher baseline HAD-D scores were associated with increased odds ratios for CVD (men: 1.162 [95% CI 1.096–1.231]; women: 1.107 [1.038–1.181]). Higher HAD-A scores associated with increased CVD in men only. High HAD-D scores predicted incident CVD (adjusted OR 1.130 [1.034–1.235]), all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 1.081, [1.012–1.154]) and cardiovascular mortality (adjusted HR 1.109 [1.002–1.229]) in men but not in women.
Limitations: The use of a self-report measure of depressive and anxiety symptoms, ‘healthy’ responder bias and the low number of cardiovascular events are all limitations.
Conclusions: Depressive and anxiety symptoms are commoner in people with CVD. These symptoms are independent predictors of CVD in men. Although HAD-D score was significantly associated with several cardiovascular risk factors, this did not fully explain the association between HAD-D and CVD.

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More information

e-pub ahead of print date: 15 March 2013
Published date: 15 August 2013
Additional Information: Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: depression, anxiety, cardiovascular disease, epidemiology, population studies
Organisations: Human Development & Health

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 355519
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/355519
ISSN: 0165-0327
PURE UUID: d9f78f34-bade-4613-a962-4d05a055493e
ORCID for Richard I G Holt: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-8911-6744
ORCID for Cyrus Cooper: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-3510-0709
ORCID for Elaine M Dennison: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-3048-4961

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Date deposited: 02 Sep 2013 12:13
Last modified: 28 Oct 2023 01:48

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Contributors

Author: David I W Phillips
Author: Karen A Jameson
Author: Cyrus Cooper ORCID iD
Author: Robert C Peveler
Corporate Author: Hertfordshire Cohort Study Group

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