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Telluroether and Selenoether complexes as single source reagents for low pressure chemical vapor deposition of crystalline Ga2Te3 and Ga2Se3 thin films

Telluroether and Selenoether complexes as single source reagents for low pressure chemical vapor deposition of crystalline Ga2Te3 and Ga2Se3 thin films
Telluroether and Selenoether complexes as single source reagents for low pressure chemical vapor deposition of crystalline Ga2Te3 and Ga2Se3 thin films
The neutral complexes [GaCl3(EnBu2)] (E = Se or Te), [(GaCl3)2{nBuE(CH2)nEnBu}] (E = Se, n = 2; E = Te, n = 3), and [(GaCl3)2{tBuTe(CH2)3TetBu}] are conveniently prepared by reaction of GaCl3 with the neutral EnBu2 in a 1:1 ratio or with nBuE(CH2)nEnBu or tBuTe(CH2)3TetBu in a 2:1 ratio and characterized by IR/Raman and multinuclear (1H, 71Ga, 77Se{1H}, and 125Te{1H}) NMR spectroscopy, respectively, all of which indicate distorted tetrahedral coordination at Ga. The tribromide analog, [GaBr3(SenBu2)], was prepared and characterized similarly. A crystal structure determination on [(GaCl3)2{tBuTe(CH2)3TetBu}] confirms this geometry with each pyramidal GaCl3 fragment coordinated to one Te donor atom of the bridging ditelluroether, Ga–Te = 2.6356(13) and 2.6378(14) Å. The nBu-substituted ligand complexes serve as convenient and very useful single source precursors for low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) of single phase gallium telluride and gallium selenide, Ga2E3, films onto SiO2 and TiN substrates. The composition and morphology were confirmed by SEM, EDX, and Raman spectroscopy, while XRD shows the films are crystalline, consistent with cubic Ga2Te3 (F‾43m) and monoclinic Ga2Se3 (Cc), respectively. Hall measurements on films grown on SiO2 show the Ga2Te3 is a p-type semiconductor with a resistivity of 195 ± 10 Ω cm and a carrier density of 5 × 1015 cm–3, indicative of a close to stoichiometric compound. The Ga2Se3 is also p-type with a resistivity of (9 ± 1) × 103 Ω cm, a carrier density of 2 × 1013 cm–3, and a mobility of 20–80 cm2/V·s. Competitive deposition of Ga2Te3 onto a photolithographically patterned SiO2/TiN substrate indicates that film growth onto the conducting and more hydrophobic TiN is preferred.
gallium selenide, gallium telluride, chemical vapor deposition, single source precursor, selenoether, tellroether, x-ray structure
0897-4756
1829-1836
George, Kathryn
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de Groot, Cornelis H.
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Gurnani, Chitra
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Hector, Andrew L.
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Huang, Ruomeng
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Jura, Marek
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Levason, William
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Reid, Gillian
37d35b11-40ce-48c5-a68e-f6ce04cd4037
Huang, R.
daf40465-ef62-4f7f-86a4-a457d8e16928
George, Kathryn
1e9bf4f9-226e-446e-9ef3-dd61c7f7aa11
de Groot, Cornelis H.
92cd2e02-fcc4-43da-8816-c86f966be90c
Gurnani, Chitra
18063024-d052-4fe3-8a79-fdecd227bc2c
Hector, Andrew L.
f19a8f31-b37f-4474-b32a-b7cf05b9f0e5
Huang, Ruomeng
c6187811-ef2f-4437-8333-595c0d6ac978
Jura, Marek
e4a8ae2b-5609-45bb-99d8-a2320b9c89b9
Levason, William
e7f6d7c7-643c-49f5-8b57-0ebbe1bb52cd
Reid, Gillian
37d35b11-40ce-48c5-a68e-f6ce04cd4037
Huang, R.
daf40465-ef62-4f7f-86a4-a457d8e16928

George, Kathryn, de Groot, Cornelis H., Gurnani, Chitra, Hector, Andrew L., Huang, Ruomeng, Jura, Marek, Levason, William, Reid, Gillian and Huang, R. (2013) Telluroether and Selenoether complexes as single source reagents for low pressure chemical vapor deposition of crystalline Ga2Te3 and Ga2Se3 thin films. Chemistry of Materials, 25 (9), 1829-1836. (doi:10.1021/cm400382j).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The neutral complexes [GaCl3(EnBu2)] (E = Se or Te), [(GaCl3)2{nBuE(CH2)nEnBu}] (E = Se, n = 2; E = Te, n = 3), and [(GaCl3)2{tBuTe(CH2)3TetBu}] are conveniently prepared by reaction of GaCl3 with the neutral EnBu2 in a 1:1 ratio or with nBuE(CH2)nEnBu or tBuTe(CH2)3TetBu in a 2:1 ratio and characterized by IR/Raman and multinuclear (1H, 71Ga, 77Se{1H}, and 125Te{1H}) NMR spectroscopy, respectively, all of which indicate distorted tetrahedral coordination at Ga. The tribromide analog, [GaBr3(SenBu2)], was prepared and characterized similarly. A crystal structure determination on [(GaCl3)2{tBuTe(CH2)3TetBu}] confirms this geometry with each pyramidal GaCl3 fragment coordinated to one Te donor atom of the bridging ditelluroether, Ga–Te = 2.6356(13) and 2.6378(14) Å. The nBu-substituted ligand complexes serve as convenient and very useful single source precursors for low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) of single phase gallium telluride and gallium selenide, Ga2E3, films onto SiO2 and TiN substrates. The composition and morphology were confirmed by SEM, EDX, and Raman spectroscopy, while XRD shows the films are crystalline, consistent with cubic Ga2Te3 (F‾43m) and monoclinic Ga2Se3 (Cc), respectively. Hall measurements on films grown on SiO2 show the Ga2Te3 is a p-type semiconductor with a resistivity of 195 ± 10 Ω cm and a carrier density of 5 × 1015 cm–3, indicative of a close to stoichiometric compound. The Ga2Se3 is also p-type with a resistivity of (9 ± 1) × 103 Ω cm, a carrier density of 2 × 1013 cm–3, and a mobility of 20–80 cm2/V·s. Competitive deposition of Ga2Te3 onto a photolithographically patterned SiO2/TiN substrate indicates that film growth onto the conducting and more hydrophobic TiN is preferred.

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Published date: 18 March 2013
Keywords: gallium selenide, gallium telluride, chemical vapor deposition, single source precursor, selenoether, tellroether, x-ray structure
Organisations: Chemistry, Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology

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Local EPrints ID: 355646
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/355646
ISSN: 0897-4756
PURE UUID: f2a1675f-96ae-4cea-8a8d-8f07f917e4e6
ORCID for Cornelis H. de Groot: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-3850-7101
ORCID for Andrew L. Hector: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-9964-2163
ORCID for William Levason: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-3540-0971
ORCID for Gillian Reid: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-5349-3468

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Date deposited: 03 Sep 2013 12:10
Last modified: 03 Dec 2019 02:07

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Contributors

Author: Kathryn George
Author: Chitra Gurnani
Author: Ruomeng Huang
Author: Marek Jura
Author: William Levason ORCID iD
Author: Gillian Reid ORCID iD
Author: R. Huang

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