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Interannual variability of oceanic CO2 and biogeochemical properties in the Western North Atlantic subtropical gyre

Interannual variability of oceanic CO2 and biogeochemical properties in the Western North Atlantic subtropical gyre
Interannual variability of oceanic CO2 and biogeochemical properties in the Western North Atlantic subtropical gyre
Understanding the relationship between Earth's climate and the oceanic carbon cycle requires an understanding of the time-variations of CO2 in the ocean, it's exchange with the atmosphere, and the rate of uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the ocean. Since 1988, hydrographic and biogeochemical data have been collected at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study (BATS) site in the Sargasso Sea, located in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. With over a decade of oceanographic data, interannual trends of CO2 species and air–sea exchange of CO2 at BATS can be examined. Between 1988 and 1998, surface seawater total carbon dioxide (TCO2) and salinity normalized TCO2 (nTCO2) increased at a rate of 2.2±6.9 and 1.6±5.8 ?mol kg?1 yr?1, respectively. During the same period, the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) of seawater increased at a rate of 1.4±10.7 ?atm yr?1, similar to the rate of increase in atmospheric pCO2 (?1.3 ?atm yr?1). The increase in seawater TCO2 and pCO2 can be attributed to a combination of uptake of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere and interannual changes in hydrographic properties of the subtropical gyre. Underlying interannual trends were examined by determining how hydrographic and biogeochemical anomalies, or deviations from the mean state, vary over time. Significant correlations existed between anomalies of temperature, salinity, integrated primary production, mixed-layer depth, TCO2, salinity normalized TCO2 (nTCO2), and alkalinity. For example, cold temperature anomalies (up to ?0.5°C) in 1992 and 1995 were associated with increased mixed-layer depth, higher rates of integrated primary production (<?100 mg C m2 d?1), and higher concentrations of nTCO2 (<?5 ?mol kg?1). The interannual anomalies of hydrography and ocean biogeochemistry were partially linked to large-scale climate variability such as North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Temperature, mixed-layer depth, primary production and TCO2 anomalies were correlated with NAO variability, with cold anomalies at BATS generally coinciding with NAO negative states. Salinity, alkalinity and nTCO2 anomalies were correlated with the Southern oscillation index (SOI), lagging ENSO events by 6–12 months.
0967-0645
1507-1528
Bates, Nicholas R.
954a83d6-8424-49e9-8acd-e606221c9c57
Bates, Nicholas R.
954a83d6-8424-49e9-8acd-e606221c9c57

Bates, Nicholas R. (2001) Interannual variability of oceanic CO2 and biogeochemical properties in the Western North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 48 (8-9), 1507-1528. (doi:10.1016/S0967-0645(00)00151-X).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Understanding the relationship between Earth's climate and the oceanic carbon cycle requires an understanding of the time-variations of CO2 in the ocean, it's exchange with the atmosphere, and the rate of uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the ocean. Since 1988, hydrographic and biogeochemical data have been collected at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study (BATS) site in the Sargasso Sea, located in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. With over a decade of oceanographic data, interannual trends of CO2 species and air–sea exchange of CO2 at BATS can be examined. Between 1988 and 1998, surface seawater total carbon dioxide (TCO2) and salinity normalized TCO2 (nTCO2) increased at a rate of 2.2±6.9 and 1.6±5.8 ?mol kg?1 yr?1, respectively. During the same period, the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) of seawater increased at a rate of 1.4±10.7 ?atm yr?1, similar to the rate of increase in atmospheric pCO2 (?1.3 ?atm yr?1). The increase in seawater TCO2 and pCO2 can be attributed to a combination of uptake of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere and interannual changes in hydrographic properties of the subtropical gyre. Underlying interannual trends were examined by determining how hydrographic and biogeochemical anomalies, or deviations from the mean state, vary over time. Significant correlations existed between anomalies of temperature, salinity, integrated primary production, mixed-layer depth, TCO2, salinity normalized TCO2 (nTCO2), and alkalinity. For example, cold temperature anomalies (up to ?0.5°C) in 1992 and 1995 were associated with increased mixed-layer depth, higher rates of integrated primary production (<?100 mg C m2 d?1), and higher concentrations of nTCO2 (<?5 ?mol kg?1). The interannual anomalies of hydrography and ocean biogeochemistry were partially linked to large-scale climate variability such as North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Temperature, mixed-layer depth, primary production and TCO2 anomalies were correlated with NAO variability, with cold anomalies at BATS generally coinciding with NAO negative states. Salinity, alkalinity and nTCO2 anomalies were correlated with the Southern oscillation index (SOI), lagging ENSO events by 6–12 months.

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Published date: 2001
Organisations: Ocean Biochemistry & Ecosystems

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Local EPrints ID: 358339
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/358339
ISSN: 0967-0645
PURE UUID: fbb3dc2b-0a81-46e1-bd8a-89cf61e4df88

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Date deposited: 03 Oct 2013 13:55
Last modified: 18 Jul 2017 03:30

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